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Free Will and Determinism
Hard determinism ­ we have no free will and are not responsible for our actions.
Soft determinism ­ while our actions are determined, humans do still have some
moral responsibility for their choices
Libertarianism ­ we are completely free to make our own decisions and choices…

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Kant is a soft determinist; he believes determinism applies to everything which is the
object of knowledge, but does not apply to the individual's free will.
Kant believed there were two types of reason;
Pure reason ­ knowledge and the scientifically explainable world (external)
Practical reason ­ actions of the…

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Psychological determinism/Behaviourism
Also known as behaviourism, a psychological approach to determinism suggests that
all human behaviour are the inevitable outcome of conditioning and establishing
cause and effect. Human behaviour can be predicted through genetic inheritance,
social conditioning and subconscious influences.
Pavlov found that, through classical conditioning, dogs would associate…

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He believes humans are free to choose how to live their lives, but their final
destination is determined by God alone, making him a soft determinist.
Jean Calvin/Calvinism proposes that everyone deserves to be punished, but the
measure of God's goodness is that he saves some people. God's justice is…

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out the current status and location of all atoms at one moment in time, you could
explain all actions of the past and predict all future actions.
Einstein `God does not play dice'; all the evidence points to God being a constant
gambler, who throws the dice on every possible…

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It allows us to attribute praise and blame; we can punish people like Hitler
and praise people like Mother Theresa for their actions
Just because we feel free, this doesn't mean we actually are; the locked
room analogy by Locke explains this
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Scientific libertarianism
Heisenberg's uncertainty principle
This suggests…

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