Free Will and Determinism

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  • Free Will and Determinism
    • Libertarianism
      • Nothing = determined we = totally free and morally responsible for our actions
        • Recognises people have sense of freedom + everything is based upon personal responsibility
          • For libertarian, determinsim +free will = incompatible + when we make decision we act as free agents
      • Hume
        • Believed in limited free will, nature was in control of human destiny
      • Reid
        • Humans have free will, yes they = limited be nature but this doesn't affect ability to make decision. You may be limited in how you achieve goal e.g. want to help charity but no money so you volunteer
      • Sarte
        • People determine their nature through choices + actions. People avoid responsibility by hiding behind determinism - we have moral responsibility
    • Free will means -
      • The ability to make free, unhindered choices and morally responsible
    • Soft determinism (compatibilism)
      • We can be both determined + free as some of of our moral choices = free but aspects of our nature = determined
        • Moral responsibility = important in our society + difficult to decided what = determined + what = chosen
      • Locke + Hume
        • Nature limits free will not G-d. Events = caused bue to casual links. Known as constant union of objects. Links = predetermined but our reactions = free will.
    • Inference of the mind
      • Without predetermined event - cannot have free will
    • Hume
      • Influenced by Isaac Newton's work, he believed that nature limits free will not G-d
      • Events = caused die to casual links. Called this -constant union of objects. Argued the links = predetermined but our reactions to these events practice free will. The predetermined events + our actions of free will work together.
        • This links inference of the mind. The decision what to do = spontaneous; it cannot be predetermined. This = called the liberty of spontaneity.
    • Moore
      • "I am free in performing an action if I could have done otherwise if I has chosen to do so"
    • Predestination
      • Calvin
        • Believed G-d was omnipotent. Majority are damned to hell and minority = given salvation to heaven. If predetermined to go to heaven - automatically do good deeds.
          • Suggests humans have no free will
      • G-d has decided who is to be saved + who isn't
        • based on belief that G-d = omniscient + omnipotent
      • Augustine
        • Believed we need G-ds grace to have good future. But He decides if you receive gift of grace. It determines if you go to heaven.
    • Moral choices
      • Social condiitoning
      • Psychology
      • Envoriment
      • Genetics
      • Moral responsibility
    • Hard determinism
      • The idea that human beings = controlled by external forces + = not able to exercise free will
      • Darrow
        • Social argument - defended 2 teens killing boy. Not to blame as they = product of their upbringing.
      • Behvaiour can be predicted + controlled. Humans = controlled by prior causes + by manipulating environment
        • Watson
      • Conditioned dogs to salivate when they heard bell. Many not always be conditioned by environment but may use it for what we want
        • Pavlov
      • iinvestigated behaviour modeification through reward + punishment
        • Skinner
      • Everything = physically determined thus there = no choice + thus no personal responsibility, no point in punishment for sake of punishment
        • Honderick
      • May appear to have moral choices, but only think wewe choose because we don't know real causes behoind choices
        • Locke
    • Determinism
      • Laws in nature  that govern everything. Free will = illusion so no personal responsibility, everything has a prior cause


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