Slides in this set
· Formality - High levels of formality indicate power in a
text, imply knowledge and can be intimidating.
· Jargon Again shows knowledge of subject and can be
· Complex lexis or grammar Intimidating for people who
may not understand.
· Imperatives Instructions?
· Conditionals Defining "If you do X, Y will happen".
· Use of modal verbs telling someone what they can.
Cannot or must not do.
· Definitions Shows knowledge of the subject ie: "You
qualify for benefits if..."…read more
· Embedded assumptions ie "You won't want to miss this
· Archaic (old-fashioned) word order
· Metaphorical terms used without comment ie: "A healthy
· Assertions Opinions stated as facts.
· Emotive language Words chosen based on the
message the piece wants to give ie: Saying "Cleansing"
instead of "Mass murder".
· Passive constructions - ie: "Your call will be clamped"
doesn't state who will do it/appears faceless and
· Official job titles used
· Impersonal constructions ie "We are closed Sundays"
seems faceless and unapproachable.
· Factual support/citation from others.
· Use of figures/statistics.
· Rhetorical features ie: Lists of three, metaphors,
repetition, parallelism, rhetorical questions.
· Standard English…read more
And in conversation...
· Mode of address ie: title or first name?
· Conversational dominance Through interruption,
lengthy utterances, topic management and agenda
· Control of other participants' contributions controlling
when they speak and what they speak about.
· Evaluating others' contributions - approving, praising
(positive reinforcement) and ignoring.
· Plus all of the features of power mentioned earlier.…read more