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Chemistry Revision
Carbonyl Compounds
Aldehydes have a carbonyl group at the end of the molecule
Ketones have a C=O bond in the middle of their carbon chain. They often have a number
to show which carbon the carbonyl group is on, i.e pentan-2-one
Acidified potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 / H2SO4) is used to mildly oxidise
alcohols to make aldehydes and carboxylic acids. This is bright orange which turns
green during the redox process.
Refluxing a primary alcohol produces a carboxylic acid, distillation produces an
aldehyde.…read more

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Chemistry Revision
produced. Acid anhydrides can be warmed with an alcohol to produce an ester and a carboxylic
acid, which can be separated from each other by fractional distillation.
Esters have the functional group -COO- and their name is made up of two parts, the first is from the
alcohol and the second is from the carboxylic acid. Esters have a sweet smell which makes them
useful in perfumes. The food industry uses esters to flavour drinks and sweets.…read more

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Chemistry Revision
Poor availability (few outlets and manufacturers)
More expensive to produce
Crops grown for biofuel use up land for food crops
A suitable climate is needed
Some countries have limited water
Not enough food waste to mass produce
Carbon neutral ­ reduces emissions
Fuel and exhaust emissions are less unpleasant
Can be used directly in an ordinary diesel engine
Safer to store and transport (high flashpoint)
Can be mixed with petrol…read more


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