Pages in this set

Page 1

Preview of page 1
F324 Notes
Module 1
Benzene and its reactions

Nitration:
START: HNO3 + H2SO4 NO2++ H2SO4- + H2O
END: H+ + HSO4- H2SO4

Halogenation:
START: Br2 +AlBr3 Br+ + AlBr4-
END: H+ + AlBr4- AlBr3- + HBr

Carbonyls

Contain C=O bond: Aldehydes and Ketones
They have a dipole since O is…

Page 2

Preview of page 2
Carboxylic acids

Between 1 and 4 Carbons are very soluble in water due to highly polar C=O and
O-H bonds which allow it to form hydrogen bonds.

They are weak acids, but take part in typical acid reactions including metal
carbonates and bases to form salts (known as carboxylates)

Carboxylic…

Page 3

Preview of page 3
During manufacture, double bonds may be removed to make the products more
solid: eg margarine. This means that the remaining double bonds are
structurally altered, so trans fats are formed.

Trans fatty acids behave like saturated fats in the body and raise LDLs (carry
cholesterol to artery walls for deposition=…

Page 4

Preview of page 4
Preparation of aromatic amines:

Reduce nitrobenzene or any other nitroarene using a mixture of conc HCl
under reflux. Then neutralize excess HCl.

Synthesis of dyes from phenylamine:

1) Diazotisation
It's responsible for forming the diazonium ion.
Step 1) make nitrous acid:
NaNO2 + HCl HNO2 +NaCl

Step 2) Make the…

Page 5

Preview of page 5
Module 2
Amino acids

General formula of an alpha amino acid: RCH(NH2)COOH




Isoelectric point: the pH value at which the amino acid exists as a zwitterion.
The isoelectric point of an amino acid depends on the R group.

The NH2 part acts as the base, so accepts protons.
The COOH…

Page 6

Preview of page 6
Optical isomers are non-superimposable mirror images about an organic chiral
Centre.
Optical isomerism and E/Z isomers are types of stereoisomerism .

Optical isomers ROTATE PLANE POLARISED LIGHT DIFERENTLY (one rotates it
clockwise, and the other anticlockwise).
A mixture of both is known as a RACEMIC MIXTURE and it has NO…

Page 7

Preview of page 7
Addition and condensation polymerisation

ALKENES UNDERGO ADDITION POLYMERISATION to produce SSATURATED
CHAINS containing NO DOUBLE BONDS.
They're made from 1 type of monomer only and there is NO ADDITIONAL
PRODUCT FORMED.
Products: POLY(ALKENE)

CONDENSATION POLYMERISATION involves the elimination of a small molecule
such as H2O or HCl.

Identification of type…

Page 8

Preview of page 8
Alternatively, carbonyl bonds can be incorporated within the backbone of the
polymer which absorb light and break. They're then converted to carbon
dioxide and water in the presence of bacteria.
Organic synthesis: Aliphatic compounds




1) Check the carbon skeleton of the starting material and product: longer
chain+ 2 carbon containing…

Page 9

Preview of page 9
Module 3
Separation by chromatography

How it works:
MOBILE PHASE sweeps a mixture over a STATIONARY PHASE
-Stationary phase is fixed in place
-Mobile phase moves in a definite direction

Stationary phase intracts with the components in the mixture, slowing them
down (greater the interaction, the more it is slowed…

Page 10

Preview of page 10
Limitations:
- Similar compounds often have similar Rf values
- Unknown compounds have reference Rf for comparison
- It can be difficult to separate all components in a mixture

Gas chromatography

Used to separate volatile components in a mixture.
Useful for organic compounds with a low boiling point.




RETENTION TIME…

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Chemistry resources:

See all Chemistry resources »See all resources »