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Intro
You must be able to understand the immediate and
long term effects of physical activity on the
cardiovascular system.
The cardiovascular system consists of:
The heart
The blood vessels (arteries, veins and capillaries)
The blood
The role of the cardiovascular system during exercise
is to:
Transport oxygen and blood to the working muscles
Remove waste products
Return the blood to lungs for oxygenation…read more

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Immediate effects
In response to exercise the
cardiovascular system
immediately:
Increases the heart rate
Increases the stroke volume
Increases the systolic blood
pressure
This helps the body as oxygen
delivery and carbon dioxide
removal is increased. The rate
of blood flow is also increased
which helps oxygen delivery
occur faster.…read more

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Effects of Regular Exercise
Increase in cardiac Lower resting heart rate
hypertrophy Increase maximum cardiac
Increase in stroke output during exercise
volume Faster return to resting
heart rate
Increased capillarisation
This is good for the
health as it reduces the Increased number of red
chance of coronary blood cells
heart disease. It also
helps fitness as the This gives a greater training
heart can contract zone as the heart needs to
more forcefully which beat less often which also
also means more blood means increased oxygen
is ejected from the delivery to working
muscles. There is an
heart each beat, so increased blood flow
increased oxygen supplying oxygen to…read more

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Blood Pressure and
Cholesterol High cholesterol can be
caused by having a diet
with too much saturated
Blood pressure is the fat. This is found in foods
force of the blood such as butter and fatty
pushing against the meat.
blood vessel wall as it There are two types of
travels around the cholesterol, `good' and
body. Diastolic blood `bad'.
pressure is lower then Low density lipoprotein
systolic blood (LDL) is the `bad'
pressure because the cholesterol that can cause
blood flow is slower deposits to build up in the
whilst the heart is arteries. This makes it
relaxing. If blood harder for the blood to
pressure is too high it circulate and can lead to
heart disease.
can put strain on your
arteries and heart. High density lipoprotein
(HDL) is the `good'…read more

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Blood Pressure and
Cholesterol Continued
Effects of an unhealthy diet:
Blood vessels can be negatively affected by an
unhealthy diet. Fats can build up in the blood
vessels, resulting in high blood pressure and high
cholesterol.
A healthy balanced diet will have a positive impact on
blood pressure and cholesterol.
Long-term benefits of regular exercise:
Regular exercise also benefits blood pressure and
cholesterol levels by:
Lowering resting blood pressure
Lowering cholesterol levels
These benefits will mean there is a reduced likelihood
of a stroke or coronary heart failure.…read more

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