Cardiovascular system Physical education GCSE

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Cardiovascular system

What is the Cardiovascular system made up of?

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Cardiovascular system

The Cardiovascular system is made up of:

  • The heart
  • The blood
  • The blood vessels.
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Cardiovascular system

Define the red blood cells, the white blood cells and the plasma.

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Red Blood Cells

  • erythocytes
  • disc shaped
  • made in the bone marrow of long bones
  • transport oxygen to the tissues
  • Haemoglobin + oxygen = oxyhaemoglobin.

White blood cells

  • levocytes
  • bigger than red with a big nuclei.
  • act as the body's defence system, some surrond and consume harmful microbes.
  • some produce chemicals called antibodies which fight infection


  • made up of 90% water, inorganic salts, glucose, antibodies, urea + other waste products and plasma proteins.
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Cardiovascular system


  • Heart rate
  • stroke volume
  • cardiac output
  • blood pressure
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Cardiovascular system

  • Heart rate = the amount of times the heart beats in a minute.
  • stroke volume = the amount of blood ejected from each ventricle by one contraction.
  • Cardiac output = the amount of blood ejected from the heart per minute.
  • Blood pressure = the pressure that the blood exerts against the artery walls.
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Cardiovascular system

Define systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure and the difference between them

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Cardiovascular system

  • Systolic blood pressure: the highest pressure within the blood stream during each heartbeat.
  • Diastolic blood pressure: the lowest pressure withing the blood stream occuring between heart beats.
  • The difference: the pulse pressure.
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Cardiovascular system

Define the 3 types of blood vessels:

  • arteries
  • capillaries
  • veins
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Cardiovascular system


  • carry blood away from the heart
  • thick muscular walls
  • small passageways for blood (internal lumen)
  • contain blood under high pressure.


  • found in muscles and lungs.
  • microscopic - one cell thick.
  • very low blood pressure
  • where gas exhange happens


  • carry blood to the heart
  • thin walls
  • larger internal lumen
  • contains blood under low pressure
  • valves to prevent the blood flowing backwards
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Cardiovascular system

What are the short term effects of exercise?

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Cardiovascular system

  • Increased heart rate - working muscles require more nutrients and oxygen.
  • Breathing becomes deeper and faster - the body need more oxygen to supply the lungs.
  • Increased body temp - sweats to cool down.
  • Sweating - as the temp rises the pores of the skin release sweat.
  • Muscles begin to ache - more demand for oxygen and faster production of lactid acid.
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Cardiovascular system

What are the long term effects of exercise?

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Cardiovascular system

  • Decreased resting heartrate - heart becomes bigger and stronger and can pump the same amount of blood with less beats.
  • Decreased recovery rate - the faster the recovery, the fitter the person.
  • Increased stroke volume - exercise enables to heart to become more efficent.
  • Changes to cardiac output - altered through changed to stroke volume and heart rate.
  • Decreased blood pressure - due to regular exercise.
  • Healthy blood vessels - exercise increases the amount of capillaries in the heart.
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