What is the Cardiovascular system made up of?
The Cardiovascular system is made up of:
- The heart
- The blood
- The blood vessels.
Define the red blood cells, the white blood cells and the plasma.
Red Blood Cells
- disc shaped
- made in the bone marrow of long bones
- transport oxygen to the tissues
- Haemoglobin + oxygen = oxyhaemoglobin.
White blood cells
- bigger than red with a big nuclei.
- act as the body's defence system, some surrond and consume harmful microbes.
- some produce chemicals called antibodies which fight infection
- made up of 90% water, inorganic salts, glucose, antibodies, urea + other waste products and plasma proteins.
- Heart rate
- stroke volume
- cardiac output
- blood pressure
- Heart rate = the amount of times the heart beats in a minute.
- stroke volume = the amount of blood ejected from each ventricle by one contraction.
- Cardiac output = the amount of blood ejected from the heart per minute.
- Blood pressure = the pressure that the blood exerts against the artery walls.
Define systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure and the difference between them
- Systolic blood pressure: the highest pressure within the blood stream during each heartbeat.
- Diastolic blood pressure: the lowest pressure withing the blood stream occuring between heart beats.
- The difference: the pulse pressure.
Define the 3 types of blood vessels:
- carry blood away from the heart
- thick muscular walls
- small passageways for blood (internal lumen)
- contain blood under high pressure.
- found in muscles and lungs.
- microscopic - one cell thick.
- very low blood pressure
- where gas exhange happens
- carry blood to the heart
- thin walls
- larger internal lumen
- contains blood under low pressure
- valves to prevent the blood flowing backwards
What are the short term effects of exercise?
- Increased heart rate - working muscles require more nutrients and oxygen.
- Breathing becomes deeper and faster - the body need more oxygen to supply the lungs.
- Increased body temp - sweats to cool down.
- Sweating - as the temp rises the pores of the skin release sweat.
- Muscles begin to ache - more demand for oxygen and faster production of lactid acid.
What are the long term effects of exercise?
- Decreased resting heartrate - heart becomes bigger and stronger and can pump the same amount of blood with less beats.
- Decreased recovery rate - the faster the recovery, the fitter the person.
- Increased stroke volume - exercise enables to heart to become more efficent.
- Changes to cardiac output - altered through changed to stroke volume and heart rate.
- Decreased blood pressure - due to regular exercise.
- Healthy blood vessels - exercise increases the amount of capillaries in the heart.