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Specification content for Chemistry
Section C1: Principles of Chemistry
(a) Atoms
All matter is made of tiny particles which constantly move around/vibrate. This
can be proven through the following experiments:
· Coloured solutions diffuse and become diluted
· Gases diffuse (prove by HCL fumes and ammonia forming white ammonium chloride)…

Page 3

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Relative atomic mass (Ar) ­ is the average mass number of all the isotopes of an

Page 4

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element, weighted by the percentage, or relative abundance, of its isotope.
Electronic configuration ­ the arrangement of electrons in an atom
· First electron shell ­ 2 electrons
· Second/Third electron shell ­ 8 electrons
(c) Relative formula masses and molar volumes
Relative formula masses (Mr) ­ calculating the grams/mol…

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Ca Li +

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2+
PO4 Na +
Cu 2+
Al 3+ K +
O 2-
Fe (III) 3+ H +
Mg 2+ Ag + OH ­
Zn 2+ NO3 +
Lead 2+ NH4+
Barium 2+ Iron (II) 2+
(CO3)2+ (SO4)2+
· use the dot and cross model to explain the formation of an…

Page 7

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they surround all metal
atom so that
shell. The shared electron means
the positive both elements
gain
that the strong covalent bonds are
metal ions and full outer
electron
formed.
bond them shell. When this
together with occurs, the
metal
strong and non-metal
electrostatic become
oppositely
forces of charged ions,…

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bonds. Boiling/ melting points

Page 9

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Simple
Giant Covalent:
Covalent: Lower melting
High melting points because
points because although there
many these are strong
structures intramolecular
contain many forces of
atoms joined attraction (within
together by the molecule),
strong covalent intermolecular
bonds forces of attraction are weaker, so less energy is needed to
break them apart…

Page 10

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Diamond Graphite structure Each carbon molecule is
covalently bonded to four other ones
Each carbon molecule is covalently bonded to 3 other ones
It has a layer structure, with weak forces of attraction between each other. Properties
Hard
More dense Shiny, transparent Does not conduct electricity High sublimation point (solid…

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Pages in this set

Page 1

Preview of page 1

Page 2

Preview of page 2
Specification content for Chemistry
Section C1: Principles of Chemistry
(a) Atoms
All matter is made of tiny particles which constantly move around/vibrate. This
can be proven through the following experiments:
· Coloured solutions diffuse and become diluted
· Gases diffuse (prove by HCL fumes and ammonia forming white ammonium chloride)…

Page 3

Preview of page 3
Relative atomic mass (Ar) ­ is the average mass number of all the isotopes of an

Page 4

Preview of page 4
element, weighted by the percentage, or relative abundance, of its isotope.
Electronic configuration ­ the arrangement of electrons in an atom
· First electron shell ­ 2 electrons
· Second/Third electron shell ­ 8 electrons
(c) Relative formula masses and molar volumes
Relative formula masses (Mr) ­ calculating the grams/mol…

Page 5

Preview of page 5
Ca Li +

Page 6

Preview of page 6
2+
PO4 Na +
Cu 2+
Al 3+ K +
O 2-
Fe (III) 3+ H +
Mg 2+ Ag + OH ­
Zn 2+ NO3 +
Lead 2+ NH4+
Barium 2+ Iron (II) 2+
(CO3)2+ (SO4)2+
· use the dot and cross model to explain the formation of an…

Page 7

Preview of page 7
they surround all metal
atom so that
shell. The shared electron means
the positive both elements
gain
that the strong covalent bonds are
metal ions and full outer
electron
formed.
bond them shell. When this
together with occurs, the
metal
strong and non-metal
electrostatic become
oppositely
forces of charged ions,…

Page 8

Preview of page 8
bonds. Boiling/ melting points

Page 9

Preview of page 9
Simple
Giant Covalent:
Covalent: Lower melting
High melting points because
points because although there
many these are strong
structures intramolecular
contain many forces of
atoms joined attraction (within
together by the molecule),
strong covalent intermolecular
bonds forces of attraction are weaker, so less energy is needed to
break them apart…

Page 10

Preview of page 10
Diamond Graphite structure Each carbon molecule is
covalently bonded to four other ones
Each carbon molecule is covalently bonded to 3 other ones
It has a layer structure, with weak forces of attraction between each other. Properties
Hard
More dense Shiny, transparent Does not conduct electricity High sublimation point (solid…

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No comments have yet been made