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(a) Atoms

All matter is made of tiny particles which constantly move around/vibrate. This
can be proven through the following experiments:
· Coloured solutions diffuse and become diluted
· Gases diffuse (prove by HCL fumes and ammonia forming white ammonium

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Relative atomic mass (Ar) ­ is the average mass number of all the isotopes of an
element, weighted by the percentage, or relative abundance, of its isotope.

Electronic configuration ­ the arrangement of electrons in an atom
· First electron shell ­ 2 electrons
· Second/Third electron shell ­ 8…

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Li + Ca 2+ PO4
Na + Cu 2+ Al 3+
K+ O 2- Fe (III) 3+
H+ Mg 2+
Ag +
OH ­ Zn 2+
NO3 + Lead 2+
NH4+ Barium 2+
Iron (II) 2+


· use the dot and cross model to explain the formation of…

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Boiling/ Giant Ionic Simple Giant Giant Metallic:
melting Structures: Covalent: Covalent: High melting
points High melting points Lower melting High melting points because
because there are points because points because lots of energy is
strong although there many these required break
intermolecular are strong structures the electrostatic
forces of…

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together by strong covalent bonds strong covalent bonds
Uses lubricant cutting

Section C2: Chemistry of the elements

(a) The Periodic Table
Periodic Table ­ elements are arranged in order of atomic number
Periods: the rows on the table. Elements going across a period:

· Increase in number of electrons on…

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· More dense
· Lower boiling point
· Softer

Group 7: Halogens ­ seven electrons on outer shell, forms -1 anion when reacted
· Low boiling/melting point
· Exists as diatomic molecules
· Brittle when solid
· Non-metal
· Poor conductor of heat/electricity
· Coloured fumes
· Iodine used as…

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Group 0: Noble Gases
· Full outer shell
· Inert gases (very un-reactive)
· Single atom gases
· Low melting point
· Low density
· Colourless

Trends in reactivity (as you go down the group):
· Higher density
· Higher boiling/melting point

Helium Less dense than air, helium ballons

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· Redox reaction ­ more reactive metal takes the oxygen from the less reactive
· Displacement reaction (of aqueous solutions)

recall the reactions with oxygen, water and dilute acids used to establish reactivity

Metal + Oxygen Metal Oxide
Metal + Water Metal Hydroxide + Hydrogen
Metal + Acid Salt…

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White precipitate of silver chloride
Test for metal ions (cations) (metal ions in compounds)
Lithium Li+ Flame Test for metal Red
Sodium Na+ cations Yellow
Potassium K+ Lilac
Calcium Ca+ Brick Red
Ammonium Sodium Hydroxide NH4+(aq) + NaOH NH3(g) + H20(l) +
ions (NH4 - ) Na+(aq)

The NH3 (ammonia…

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· They are "saturated" means that they only have single covalent bonds, so no
more atoms can be added

Homologous Series: a family of compounds which have similar structure and chemical
properties. A family of compounds can be represented by a general formula. Members
of the same homologous series may…


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