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Date: October 8th 2005
Date: January 17th 1995
Location: Kashmir, India
Location: Japan
Epicentre: Muzaffarabad and Kashmir
Epicentre: Awaji island -> 40 miles from Kobe
Strength: 7.6
Strength: 7.2
Plates: Indian plate and Eurasian plate (collision margin)
Plates: Philippines plate and Eurasian plate
Key facts: 17th most deadliest earthquake of all time
Key facts: one of the most expensive disasters in history
Impacts:
Impacts:
Social Economic Environmental Social Economic Environmental
5502 people confirmed dead ->80% Caused $132 billion in damage -> Numerous fires, gas and water main 79,000 people died, 106,000 Cost of damage estimated at $5 Landslides and rock falls damages
died from being crushed/suffocated 2.5% of Japan's national income breaks injured-> 70% of all casualties billion several major mountain roads
occurred in Muzaffarabad
37,000 people injured Only $3 billion was covered by The fault shifted 6-10 feet in
insurance opposite directions -> highly visible At least 33,000 buildings collapsed Liquefaction and sand blows
occurred in western Kashmir
Over 200,000 building damaged or Kobe's port badly damaged ->
destroyed handles 12% of Japan's exports 4 million people left homeless
Response: more than 300,000 people were moved into emergency shelters, food Response: total of $6.2 billion was pledged in aid from NGO's and other countries,
was scarce -> people fought over packets of noodles, military not issued until 9 400 billion rupees arrived from all over world, US military helped, UN launched a
hours after quake, government donated $450 million to people affected, `flash appeal' for emergency supplies, specialised rescue teams arrived from
government subsidised 90% of the cost of repair. Western Europe
Future: earthquake preparation day on the 12th January, improved rapid relief plans Future: better building regulations were implemented to reduce risk of potential
References : damage, better emergency plans, 75,000 people taught how to build earthquake
USGS proof buildings
BBC news website ­> on this day References :
Georesources.com Economist.com
USGS…read more

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Date: 17th January 1994
Date: 12th January 2010
Location: California, America
Location: Haiti, Caribbean (conservative)
Epicentre: San Fernando Valley about 20 miles northwest of Los Angeles
Epicentre: 16km south west of Port-Au-Prince
Strength: 6.7
Strength: 7.0
Plates: San Andreas Fault -> Pacific plate and North American plate
Plates: North American plate and Caribbean plate (conservative margin)
Key facts: most expensive natural disaster in the US
Key facts: predicted 2 years prior by professor Paul Mann, shallow depth of the
Impacts: major roads and freeways were damaged -> many bridges failed and fell
earthquake caused an amplification of impacts -> building on soft sediment were
sideways most notably the interchange at interstate 5
unable to cope
Impacts:
Social Economic Environmental
Social Economic Environmental
57 deaths and 5000 injuries $20 billion lost in damage 11,000 landslides triggered
Affected over 3 million people, Poorest nation in western 19 million cubic metres of rubble
approximately 230,000 people died hemisphere -> can't afford proper and debris in Port au Prince
equipment 20,000 homeless, 40,000 buildings 700,000 claims made to federal and liquefaction
destroyed state assistance programmes
60% of the Governments buildings 70% if inhabitants life on less than
destroyed $2 a day A number of bridges and multi-
storey car parks collapsed
1 In 3 building collapsed -> lack of
proper steel supports
Response: a corrupt government made it hard to make plans of action, initial Response: few hours following the earthquake President Clinton and other key
response was slow to date NGO's have raised over £380 million, 53 USAR teams members of the cabinet flew out to the affected areas, relief funds were also quick
went out to help rescued over 200 people to arrive. Organisation and communication was good, systems were put into place
Future: importance of risk reduction, coordination and communication to assist the local people and provide an area where people could get up to date
References : information about the earthquake.
Haiti's killer earthquake channel 4 documentary Future: improvements made to building regulations to make sure buildings are
http://www.dec.org.uk/haiti- -> disaster emergency committee earthquake proof and withstand sideways shaking
http://www.alnap.org References :
http://nisee.berkeley.edu/northridge/
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/states/events/1994_01_17.php
http://thinkprogress.org
http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/RMP/july2000/Papers/Northridge_0401.pdf…read more

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Date: June 15th 1991
Date: 13th November 1985
Location: Philippines
Location: Andes mountains, Columbia
Plates: Eurasian subducting under Philippine plate
Plates: Nazca & south American plates (convergent boundary)
Key facts: second largest eruption of the century
Key facts: second most deadly eruption in the 20th century
Impacts: heavy rain produced lahars to run down to surrounding lowlands
Impacts:
Social Economic Environmental Social Economic Environmental
50 schools, 2 hospitals and 58 750 claims made against 3200hectares of farmland lost US military bases heavily damaged $100 million damage to planes Deposited 1 cubic mile if volcanic
industrial building destroyed government for negligence flying past ash and rock
Lahars destroyed 100,000 homes $700 million total damage Caused global temperatures to drop
8000 made homeless 60% of livestock destroyed, 30% rice40meters deep mud flow by 1 Celsius -> caused winter
warming in northern hemisphere
70% of Armero killed, 5000 injured Cost $7.7 billion -> 20% of GDP Soil erosion 20,000 people evacuated, 874 Farmland destroyed, unusable due
people killed mainly from lahars to pumice
Response: lack of volcanologists no one to interpret warning signs Response: monitoring systems quickly put into place and volcanic maps produced,
Future: technology to monitor volcano, development of disaster protection -> lead to evacuation of over 100,000 people.
government set up detailed warning and evacuation systems Future: constant monitoring now that its active again with help form USGS
References : References :
Geology.com USGS
BBC news website NASA -> winter warming
USGS Hazard and responses, second edition by Victoria Bishop
Volcano discovery.com…read more

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Date: 1995-1997
Location: Soufriere hills, Montserrat, small Caribbean island
Plates: north American plates subducting under Caribbean plate
Key facts: dormant for nearly 400 years
Impacts: small eruption
Social Economic Environmental
23 people died, 50% of population Received humanitarian aid, UK Farmland destroyed
evacuated to the north of the island provided $10 million in aid
to makeshift shelters
Abandonment of major cities -> Rioting broke out Forest fires caused by pyoclastic
moved to north less risk flows
Partial evacuation, 12000 people The tourist industry is still suffering As most of the southern area was
emigrated with few visitors except for cruise destroyed any remaining
ships looking at the volcano inhabitants have had to endure
harsh living conditions in the North
Response: £41 million was given in aid by the British Government, The MVO
(Montserrat Volcano Observatory) was set up to study the volcano and provide
warnings for the future
References :
BBC news website
A2 geography textbook…read more

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