A2 Edexcel Geography THE TECHNOLOGICAL FIX?(Contested Planet)

summary (links all other topics in my opinion!) :)

HideShow resource information
Preview of A2 Edexcel Geography THE TECHNOLOGICAL FIX?(Contested Planet)

First 403 words of the document:

(6) The technological fix
6.1 The geography of technology
6.1.1 What is technology?
Humans invent technology and it is with this that we are set apart from the rest of the animal kingdom. Human
inventions include tools, machines and systems. Technology allows humans to control their environment and
improve quality of life. Some examples include:
Medicines reducing the impact of bacteria and viruses, prolonging life
Crop breeding increasing yields and thus the calorie intake
Just-in-time delivery systems increase profits
Technology cannot be avoided; people in the developed world are somewhat reliant upon technology
Agricultural technology produces virtually all our food due to mechanisation of this industry
Medical technology is relied upon to fix the smallest of ills, and all the equipment that's required to perform
intrinsic surgical procedures
Petroleum & nuclear technology supply our energy needs which are ever-growing around the world,
decreasing supply and an ever-increasing demand
The removal of technology, even for only a moment has extreme and devastating consequences, which disrupt
different flows and patterns, across the world. This can lead to massive crises, in 2007/2008 a global crisis was created
by oil prices rising to US$147 per barrel. Another example is the 2012 UK oil tanker potential strike which saw many
people panic buy and run some petrol pumps dry.
While technology is widespread it's not universal, and access varies across the development spectrum massively.
Access to electricity, 2000 Access to improved sanitation, Internet access population
2004 penetration, 2010
Technologie Power stations; transmission Water supply network; Computers; wireless or other
s grids purification equipment; sewage network
UK 100% 100% 82.5%
Turkey 95% 88% 45%
China 98.6% 44% 31.6%
Bangladesh 20.4% 39% 0.4%
This shows how the level of development is linked to the dependency on technology. Access to electricity in the UK is
ubiquitous but much rarer in Bangladesh.
6.1.2 Geographical patterns and access
The traditional north-south divide is evident on a map, but the patterns of Internet access are a lot more complex:
Southern and eastern Europe has fewer users than northern Europe
Latin America has similar levels to parts of Europe, despite being less developed
Asia and especially Africa have low percentage of users, but many Asian megacities such as Mumbai or
Shanghai have levels of internet access over 40% whereas rural areas have levels under 5% (internal DG)

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Economics explains much of this pattern. In Uganda in 2006, it cost $2300 for an annual Internet connection, far
beyond most people's economic means/situation.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Barriers and inequalities
Access to the numerous technologies is usually very strongly correlated with the level of economic development in the
region, but there are also other factors which explain the lack of access to, or an unwillingness to use, particular
Physical reasons ­ renewable energy technologies are only suited to certain physical locations, e.g. solar
and wind power. HEP requires suitable water supply and a valley
Political reasons ­ In N.Korea, internet access is not available to ordinary citizens.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Much of the developing world is still industrial. Apple's iPhone illustrates the technology gap. As with many industrial
products, complex components are made in Japan and the NICs. Less complex assembly is completed in China. The
LICs, e.g. Africa plays no role in the iPhone design or manufacture.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

For other developing countries, technological leapfrogging provides one possibility. This is when a technology is
adopted without a precursor technology. The classic example is mobile phones, which have been adopted by
countries that don't already have an extensive landline network, there are, of course, a number of other examples:
Laptops and Wifi ­ without a hard-wired network stage
Solar panels and micro-HEP ­ without complex electricity transmission grid
The technologies that usually have the ability to leapfrog are generally mobile and physically small.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Dealing with externalities
Using technology has consequences. The more technology we use, the greater the environmental impact. This is due
Goods require resources, which have to be extracted and processed
Manufacturing causes pollution
Technology has to be powered or fuelled, which usually means fossil fuel use
The most technologically advanced societies use the most energy resources and have the largest ecological
footprint.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

Small is beautiful" "The bigger the better" "High tech is best" "Renewable future"
Intermediate technology ­ Mega-engineering projects Most advanced solution Alternative technology ­
low cost, simple, small that provide a one off possible/currently available lowest possible
scale, using local resources solution at very high capital e.g.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

The Aral Sea is often viewed as the world's worst ecological disaster ­ increasing cotton production but destroying
the ecology of the world's fourth largest inland sea. Opponents of geo-engineering argue we can never know the full
effects of such large-scale schemes until it's too late. Any further attempts to solve these problems will need to be
progressed with extreme care.
6.3.3 Technology and sustainability
Countries have very different attitudes towards technology and its environmental impact.…read more

Page 9

Preview of page 9

Here's a taster:

Switching world ­ to a more renewable resource based one. Making and powering technology with renewable
resources avoids the negative outcomes.
There's some evidence of convergence, albeit only in a very limited number of countries. China's R&D is growing close
to that of Japan's (23% between 2001 and 2006) whilst the USA's is growing but slowly (1-2% 2001-2006). In S.Korea
companies spend about 6.5% of their budgets on R&D compared to only 5% in Europe. These countries are NICs and
have gradually built their wealth.…read more

Page 10

Preview of page 10

Here's a taster:

Technology allows humans to control the environment effectively and improve QOL
Scales ­ from mega high-tech projects to small-scale low-cost projects and emerging nanotechnology to
Access varies ­ north-south divide, socio-cultural, political & economic factors
Barriers to development ­ physical, environmental, political, cultural, religious and economic
Leapfrogging can narrow the tech/devlp. Gap
Leapfrogging ­ adaptation of advanced technology without precursor technology being adopted (e.g.
Green Revolution and GM crops costs and benefits vary SEEP
Appropriate technology, e.g.…read more



this is AMAZING!!!!! thank you sooo much!! :D


this is AMAZING!!!!! thank you sooo much!! :D

Bethany Cunningham

I definitely agree technological fix (hopefully) provides the solution to the contested planet problems. Anyway, another great resource, thanks again!

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all resources »