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Agricultural Case Study: Mashkan Shapir
140km downriver from Baghdad
Site discovered through satellite technology
Irrigation systems and canals used to inundate the fields
Texts named the city and date it to 2000BC under King Larsa
State society
Traded wood, fish and crops with Euphrates and Tigris rivers
Population roughly 15,000…

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Conclusions about Agriculture
Agriculture can be seen in fields and irrigation systems
Technologies vary due to regional and climatic differences
The Nile's annual inundation washed out the salt from the fields preventing the increase in
salinity but the artificial canals in Mashkan Shapir failed to cope with this

Tell Abu…

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Animal bone analysed showed that most animals killed were around 1 year of age
Suggest they were killed in the summer months and fit with additional bone profile

Head Smashed In
Northern America
Native Americans used the topography and knowledge of bison behaviour
Chased bison between natural drivelanes over a…

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The statues were carved on their backs
Toki were seed to chisel into the rock
Outlines of the moai would be established
Sides would be carved out
Next carved the space underneath allowing work on the back to begin
One person would have been able to work in the space…

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Continued for at least 1000 years
Half a million tonnes of ore on 140ha mined
Xia Dynasty first large bronze vessels were cast at Erlitou
Mine shafts were 60m deep
Passed through the water table, wood troughs channelled water to special pumps
Before iron was available, the ore was secured…

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Season first phase, permanent second phase

Grain: barley, wheat, corn

Easter Island:
Volcanic tuff
Lobster, tuna and eel
Basalt toki
Remote island


All sites exploit recourses in some way
Technology improvements allow expansion of…

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All local pottery styles in early phase (700 to 400BC)
100BC to 50AD pottery more varied than any other UK Iron age site
Beyond the scale of anything else ever seen
Luxury objects suggest wealth amongst inhabitants ­gold, copper broaches, pottery, coins
bronze bits)
Daub and clay floors and hearths…

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Transport from Shipwrecks: Kyrenia
Cyprus 300BC
9000 almonds
400 amphorae
Sunk by pirates
Trade porttoport to collect and deliver
90 year old pine
Hull first technology
Unknown destination

Transport from Shipwrecks: Yassi Ada
Turkey 625AD
Dated by coins from the Byzantine emperor Heraculius
Steelyard head of boar with a sliding…

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