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Categorising
· DSM 5 ­ Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
· Created by the American Psychiatric Association
· DSM takes a dimensional approach; suggest some symptoms of a disorder may be more sever than others
1. Diagnostic Classification;
The official list of mental disorders recognised by the DSM. Select the disorder that best reflects the signs and
symptoms displayed by the individual being evaluated. Each disorder is aaccompanied by a diagnostic doe which is
used for data collection and billing purposes and is derived from the coding system of the ICD. *Other factors
considered include; medical conditions, psychosocial factors and environmental problems.*
2. Diagnostic Criteria Sets;
Each disorder has its own diagnostic criteria that indicates the symptoms that must be present and how long for.
This increases diagnostic reliability. E.g. 2 or more of the following symptoms must be present for a significant
portion of a 1 month period and at least 1 must be 1, 2 or 3; 1.delusions, 2.haullucinations, 3.disorganised speech,
4.grossly disorganised behaviour and 5.negative symptoms.
3. Descriptive Text;
Additional information accompanies each disorder which describes each disorder under a number of headings.
Some of these include; "Associated Features Supporting Diagnosis", "Culture Related Diagnostic Issues" and
"Gender Related Diagnostic Issues".…read more

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Categorising
· ICD-10 ­ International Classification of Diseases
· Created by World Health Organisation
· Used to diagnose physical and mental disorders
· Each disorder has a description of the main features and any
important associated features. The diagnostic section indicators how
many of each feature and the balance required between different
types of features needed to make an accurate diagnosis. Each
disorder is then given a code.
· Categories include; Dementia, Schizophrenia, Affective Disorders and
Personality Disorders.…read more

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Definitions
· Abnormality can be defined as a failure to function adequately.
· Under this definition, a person is considered abnormal if they are unable to cope with the demands
of everyday life. They may be unable to perform the behaviours necessary for day-to-day living e.g.
self-care, hold down a job, interact meaningfully with others, make themselves understood etc.
· Rosenhan identified 7 features ­ SUMOVIV
Suffering (e.g. grief)
Unpredictability and loss of control (loss of temper)
Maladaptiveness (danger to self)
Observer discomfort (making others around feel uncomfortable e.g. standing to close to someone)
Vividness and unconventionality (stands out e.g. getting tattoos)
Irrationality and incomprehensibility (behaving in a way that doesn't seem logical e.g. paying for something free)
Violation of moral and ideal standard (e.g. removing clothes in public)…read more

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Definitions
Suffering
Maladaptiveness
Unpredictability/ loss of control Observer discomfort
Vividness and Unconventionality Irrationality/incomprehensibility Violation of moral and ideal standards…read more

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Definitions
· Rosenhan ­ SUMOVIV
· Limitations of the definition:
1. Abnormal behaviour may actually be helpful, function and adaptive for the individual. For example, a person
who has the obsessive-compulsive disorder of hand-washing may find that the behaviour makes him
cheerful, happy and better able to cope with his day.
2. Many people engage in behaviour that is maladaptive/harmful or threatening to self, but we don't class
them as abnormal: Adrenaline sports Smoking, drinking alcohol, Skipping classes
3. Context. Behaviour must be considered in context before it can be judged as failure to function adequately.
For example, going on a hunger strike would cause personal distress and observer discomfort but it is not
necessarily psychologically abnormal.
4. Failing to function adequately may be due to situational pressures rather than psychological abnormality. If a
person loses their job and is unable to get a new one then they may be enable to look after their family, but
this may be due to the economic situation rather than because they are unable to adapt to the situation.
5. People with psychological disorders may well be able to function adequately. People with clinical
depression, for example, are usually able to work, look after their families, behave rationally, and adapt to
new situations.…read more

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