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Causes of Stress Measuring Stress Managing Stress
Work: Physiological Measures: Cognitive ­
Johansson ­ Geer and Maisel ­ Meichenbaum ­
Measuring stress This is the use of GSR (Galvonic SIT, stress inoculation
responses, Swedish saw Skin Response) and heart-rate therapy, comparing to
mill. electrodes. systematic desensitisation &
control group.
Hassles: Self-report ­ Behavioural ­
Kanner ­ Holmes & Rahe ­ Budzynski ­
Comparing 2 Life events, measuring the Biofeedback and reduction of
measurements, Hassles extent to which life events can tension headaches.
and uplifts vs. Life events. measure stress levels
Lack of Control: Combined Approach ­ Social Support ­
Geer & Maisel, Johansson ­ Waxler-Morrison ­
control in reducing stress Urine sample (saw mill study) Social relationships and
reactions, 3 groups and body temp, combined to cancer survival.
shown photo's. self report (caffeine + nicotine
intake)…read more

Slide 2

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NAPPRCC - Johansson
NAPPRCC ­ Geer & Maisel
NAPPRCC - Kanner
N ­ Johansson
N ­ Geer & Maisel
A ­ The aim of the study by N ­ Kanner A ­ To see if perceived control (imagined) or
Johansson was to measure stress A ­ The aim of kanner was to actual control can reduce stress reactions to
responses in employees by using compare the hassles and uplifts disturbing stimuli.
psychological and physiological scale to Life events. P ­ 60 Undergrads from NY uni, doing
methods P ­ 100 whom completed a health psychology.
P ­ 24 Swedish saw mill workers, survey in 1965 from California, P ­ In group 1, actual control was given over
14 high risk workers whom mostly white protestant with viewing time (32s max) of disturbing photos,
worked at a set pace and had grade 9 education or higher. and warned of a tone before each pic. Groups
high responsibility, and 10 P ­ All tests sent out by post, pps 2, 35s of photos, each pic 60s apart, and
(control) were cleaners or had to complete hassles rating warned of the viewing time, and told there
maintenance workers every month for 9 month, Life would be a 10s tone before each pic, no
P ­ Each pp gave daily urine events rating after 1 months and control was given but new what would
samples, once when arriving at HSCH & bradburn moral scale happen. Lastly in group 3, they were told that
work and 4 other times very month for 9 months. from time to time they would see photos and
throughout the day. Also self R ­ Hassles were consistent from hear tones, this group had no control or
reports given of moods, caffeine month to month, The more life predictability. All pp were seated in a sound
and nicotine intake. Baseline events, the more hassles but proof room and wired to GSR ­ Galvonic skin
measurements taken same day at fewer uplifts. For women, more response, machine and heart-rate monitors
home. (urine measures for life event reported, the more calibrated for 5mins, however HR monitors
adrenaline levels hassles AND uplifts reported. were later discarded due to inaccuracy.
R ­ High risk groups adrenaline Hassles caused more Baseline measurements were taken. GSR
was twice as high as their psychological symptoms than life recordings taken on start of tone, second half
baseline measurement when events did. of tone, and during stimuli
working, control groups C- Hassles are a more powerful R ­ Group 2 showed most stress with the tone,
adrenaline decreased throughout predictor of psychological as they knew it was coming but had no control,
their shift. Self reports for HR felt symptoms than life events. group 1 experienced less stress than group 3 in
irritated Hassles always contribute to response to the pics.
C- Repetitive, machine paced psychological symptoms C ­ PP's have less stress response when given
work in high demand and regardless of life events. control over stimuli, especially when given the
responsibility contributed to
option to terminate it.
higher stress levels…read more

Slide 3

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NAPPRCC ­ Holmes & Rahe
NAPPRCC - Meichenbaum
N ­ Holmes & Rahe
A ­ The aim of this study was to create a N ­ Meichenbaum
method that estimates the extent to which A ­ To compare SIT with standard behavioural systematic
life events are stressors. desensitisation and a control group
P ­ there were 394 pp's, 179 males and 215 P ­ 21 students aged 17 ­ 25 who responded to an advert for
females, from a range of educational abilities, treatment of test anxiety
ethnic groups and religions. P ­ Matched pairs, each pp tested using a test anxiety
P ­ Each pp was asked to rate 43 life events . questionnaire, They then completed an IQ test which was
Marriage for example was rated 50, assessed using a n anxiety adjective checklist. A baseline score
judgements could be based on personal was taken and a group was allocated to each pp. In the SIT
experience or perceptions of other people groups, 8 therapy sessions were given in which the pps were
experiences. given the `insight' approach to help identify thoughts before the
R ­ Correlations between groups were test. They were also given some positive statements and
tested and found to be high in all except one relaxation techniques. In the SD group, 8 therapy sessions were
group. Males and females agreed, even age, also given and given progressive relaxation to practice at home
religions and education abilities, however too. The control group were on a waiting list and told that they
there was less correlation between black and would receive therapy soon.
white people. R ­ Performance on the tests improved in the SIT groups more
C ­ These findings only realistically apply to a so than the other 2 groups, although there was a significant
western way of life, also social desirability difference between the 2 therapy groups and control groups,
may have played a factor due to success and both therapy groups showed an overall improvement but the
conformity (to stay in line with everyone SIT group had shown better anxiety levels.
else). The agreement and correlation is C ­ SIT Is a more effective way of reducing anxiety. It is more
impressive and constitutes how life events effective than behavioural techniques.
cause stress.…read more

Slide 4

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NAPPRCC - Budzynski
N ­ Budzynski
NAPPRCC ­ Waxler-Morrison
A ­ To see whether Biofeedback actually works or whether
the placebo effect is the thing that cures and not the BioF
P ­ 18 participants from Colorado, that replied to a local N ­ Waxler-Morrison
newspaper ad. All Pps were screened by telephone and given A ­ To look at how a women's social
psychiatric and medical exams to ensure no other reason for relationships may influence her response to
headaches. 2 males and 16 females aged between 22 and 44
mean age of 36. breast cancer and survival.
P ­ 3 groups of 6, group A had biofeedback sessions with P ­ 133 women under 55 year old (pre-
relaxation training and EMG feedback. Group B had menstrual) referred to clinic in Vancouver
relaxation training with pseudo ­feedback (fake) Shown a with a confirmed diagnosis of breast cancer.
tape of real biofeedback session but didn't link into
relaxation. Group C were a control group on a waiting list, P ­ PP's sent a self administered
but received same amount of attention. For 2 weeks pps questionnaire, to gather info on their current
kept a record of their headaches from 0 (low) to 5 (severe) A social networks and also info on education,
baseline headache reading was taken. 16 sessions given to family and friends.
groups A & B, twice a week for 8 weeks. Both groups asked
to practice relaxation at home for 15-20 mins a day. Group C
R ­ 6 areas of the social networking were
were given no training but told they would be in 2 months. specifically linked with survival, such as
After 3 months, groups A & B were given EMG and MMPI marital status, contact with friends, support
tests. from friends, total support, social network
R ­ Group A's muscle tension was much lower than GB, even
after 3 months. GA headaches were much less frequent and
and employment. Some concrete types of
lower in intensity than the other 2 groups. GA showed a support that was specifically useful was
significant drop in the number of pp's with Hypochondriasis. child-care, cooking and transport.
GA and GB showed better social relationships and less drug C ­ It is acknowledged that that the main
usage in GA. The follow up after 18 months showed that GA
factor influencing survival was the state of
biofeedback was successful in the long-term
C ­ Biofeedback is an effective treatment for stress the cancer at the time of the diagnosis.
management. Relaxation is useful when combined with
biofeedback.…read more

Slide 5

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Dysfunctional Behaviour
Diagnosis Explanations Treatments
Categorising ­ Behavioural - Behavioural ­
DSM & ICD ­ Watson & Raynor - McGrath ­
Looking at classifications Study of classical Noise phobia in little Lucy
of dysfunctional behaviour conditioning
Definitions ­ Biological ­ Biological ­
Rosenhan & Seligman ­ Gottesman & Shields ­ Karp & Frank ­
Defining dysfunctional Twin and family study on Combining and comparing
behaviour schizophrenia drug and non drug
treatment for
Bias ­ Cognitive ­ Cognitive ­
Ford & Widiger ­ Beck et al ­ Beck et al ­
Sex bias in the diagnosis of Interviews with depression Comparing effectiveness
disorders sufferers. of cognitive and drug
therapy.…read more

Slide 6

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NAPPRC ­ Rosenhan & Seligman
The DSM was created by the American Psychiatric N ­ Rosenhan & Seligman
association. In full it is called the diagnostic and A ­ To create a system in which to be able to simply
statistical manual of mental disorders. The manual diagnose somebody with an abnormality.
gets updated regularly, with its first publishing being P ­ The system used is generalisable to almost everyone
released in 1952. The DSM II arrived in 1962 only to in the right context.
be reprinted in 1974 with homosexuality removed, P ­ R&S gave 4 areas in which one must adhere to at
DSM III in 1980, DSM IV in 1994, and DSM IV TR, in least a select number in order to be abnormal, these are:
2000. The DSM works on a multi-axel system, or in 1. Statistical Infrequency- Behaviour not seen very
English, different sub-sections of classification, that often in society.
are more tailored and specific to a certain area of 2. Deviation from social norms ­ Behaviour that
psychological issue i.e. depression comes under axis society does not approve of.
I, and OCD comes under axis II. The DSM has 3. Failure to function adequately ­ Not functioning in a
developed in such a way that it is consistently cross- way that allows someone to live independently in
cultural in its diagnosis. The DSM was compiled by everyday life
more than 1000 psychology researchers and experts. 4. Lack of ideal mental health ­ Jahoda defines ideal
Lastly The DSM is a much more holistic method of mental health to be these things:
diagnosis in comparison to the ICD. · Positive view of your self
· Capabilities of personal growth
ICD: · To be independent and self-regulating
The ICD, which stands for International Classification of · To have an accurate view of reality
Diseases, was created by WHO (The World Health · Be resistant to stress
Organisation). Like the DSM, it is forever being revised · To be able to adapt to your environment.
and updated, with it being in its 10th edition already. R ­ If you do not display any of these 4 areas, then, by
However, the ICD doesn't just specifically focus on definition, you do not have an abnormality.
Psychological health, it also looks at general physical C ­ This system only works if the right context is applied,
health. This makes the ICD somewhat reductionist. one thing in one culture may be approved but not in
However as it is compiled if finding from the whole another.
world, it is more generalisable in its diagnosis.…read more

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