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· Phobia
· General characteristics ­ person shows a persistent fear of a particular object or situation and realises their fear
is irrational their response outweighs realistic consequences of the situation/object
· DSM 5 classification ­
1. Marked fear or anxiety about a specific object or situation
2. Always provokes immediate fear/anxiety
3. Actively avoided or endured with intense fear
4. Fear/anxiety is out of proportion to the actual danger
5. Fear/anxiety/avoidance has been persistent, lasting 6+ months
6. Fear/anxiety/avoidance causes clinically significant distress/impairment in areas of functioning e.g. socially
and occupationally
7. Disturbance isn't better explained by other mental disorders based on symptoms shown
· Complex phobias ­ many situations or objects e.g. Social phobia ­ not being able to meet new people, avoiding
public speaking and difficulty with important meetings and e.g. Agorophobia ­ fear of open/ public places…read more

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· Bipolar
· Prevents the individual from leading a normal life, at work, socially or
within their family, which would cause them to be diagnosed with an
affective disorder. Affective refers to your mood/ emotional state.
· Bipolar 1 = must have MANIC episode preceded or followed by
· Bipolar 2 = recurring episodes of or more MAJOR DEPRESSIVE and at
least one HYPOMANIC episode…read more

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· Bipolar · Major Depressive:
· Manic Episode Criteria (bipolar 1 only): Experienced 5+ symptoms for 2weeks+, consistently.
Experienced 3+ symptoms for 1week+ and have caused 1. Depressed mood most of day, nearly every day
sever impairment in social and occupational functioning. 2. Significant change in weight
Experience psychosis and negative symptoms. 3. Insomnia or hypersomnia
1. Inflated self-esteem 4. Recurrent thoughts of death
2. Decreased need for sleep 5. Diminished interest in activities
3. More talkative 6. Fatigue
4. Flight of ideas 7. Diminished ability to think or concentrate
5. Distractibility
8. Feeing's of worthlessness
9. Psychomotor agitation (a series of unintentional and
6. Increase in goal directed activity either socially,
occupationally, sexually or psychomotor agitation purposeless motions)
7. Excessive involvement in activates that may result in
painful consequences e.g. buying spree
· Hypomanic:
Experienced 3+ symptoms of the manic criteria for 4days+
but they mustn't have caused sever impairment in social
and occupational functioning. No psychosis experienced.…read more

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· Schizophrenia
· Psychotic disorders involve a loss of contact with reality
· DSM 5 ­ two or more symptoms must have been present for 6+ months and include at least
one month of active symptoms:
1. Delusions ­ an impression maintained despite being contradicted by reality or rational
argument e.g. delusions of grandeur ­ convinced they are God
2. Hallucinations ­ experience the apparent perception of something not present ­ can be
visual, auditory, tactile, taste or smell e.g. hearing voices
3. Disorganised speech./ thinking ­ disorganised thought processes thus difficult yin
expressing thoughts to outsiders and unable to think logically e.g. "word salad" or making
up a word
4. Grossly disorganised or abnormal motor behaviour (including catatonia) ­ abnormality
of movement and behaviour arising from a disturbed mental state e.g. complete lack of
5. Negative symptoms ­ the removal of thoughts, feelings and behaviours that are normally
present e.g. diminished emotional expression…read more

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Explanations ­ schizophrenia…read more

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