Evaluation and Background Grid for G543

A table of all G543 topics for Health and Criminal Psychology with main study, background theory, main evaluation issues (with examples to illustrate) and evaluation of topic/approach

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Topic Study Background Theory Evaluation Issues of Study Evaluation of Topic/Approach
Health Belief Model Becker et al The Health Belief Model is based on the Sample: some children had asthma for The model assumes we're all rational
belief that people's decisions to follow longer, only the mothers adherence processors
Takes into account our cognition and
healthy behaviours arise from an Applications: useful as it provides an
assessment of the perceived risks involved opportunity of examining what occurs when
and a costbenefit analysis the compliance doesn't control the disease
The Health Belief Model was developed by Methodology: selfreport, relies on honesty,
Becker and Rosenstock and has several social desirability bias, only correlation not
factors which determine healthy behaviour: causation
perceived threat of illness, perceived Reliability: reliable as it correlates with the
susceptibility, cues to action, benefits of factors which the HBM believes are
action, costs of action important
Locus of Control Wineman Locus of Control is the extent to which an Sample: SelfSelecting Sample has many `One case fits all' situation so is
individual believes that they can control the drawbacks reductionist because it doesn't allow for
events that happen to them. Data: Only quantitative data collected which people to be in between internal and
You can have either internal or external locus doesn't provide a reason for the results external locus of control.
of control which is a theory that Rotter collected
developed. If you have a high internal locus of Reliability: Likert Scales are used for Body
control then you believe events come directly Cathexis Scale which is unreliable as they
from your own beliefs or actions. If you have a are subjective.
high external locus of control then you believe Validity: Rotter's Scale may not be the most
events are determined by an outside force. suitable because factors that affect eating
Therefore people who have control over their habits may not be affecting beliefs.
situation can cope better with potential threats
SelfEfficacy Zalewska Self Efficacy is a person's belief in their own Sample: Biased towards females, trained Takes the cognitive approach
Puchala ability to achieve. An individual with a high level nurses are more knowledgeable than Locus of Control plays a part in
of selfefficacy would believe that they are general population, ethnocentric selfefficacy but on its own it's too
successful at remaining healthy Reliability: BMI is a tested and reliable simplistic
Created by Bandura and he suggested there measure of healthy bodies
were 3 factors that affect selfefficacy: vicarious Usefulness: Limited due to lack of random
experience (seeing others be successful), sampling of whole population but can be
verbal persuasion (someone telling you that generalised to nurses in Poland.
you can be successful) and emotional arousal Validity: Affected by social desirability bias,
(too much anxiety can reduce selfefficacy) honesty and memory issues involved in
Bandura and Adams trained participants to selfreport element.
become less fearful of snakes and those who

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Method: Honesty and memory issues, social
themselves. desirability bias and correlation doesn't infer
cause and effect
Data: only quantative data collected providing
no explanations of results
Media Campaigns Keating et al People can be persuaded to adopt healthy Sample: not able to generalise outside of Effective as it reaches a wide number
behaviours by advertisements on TV, cinema, Nigeria, representative of Nigeria, from a of people very quickly
leaflets etc.…read more

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Bulpitt: men with high blood pressure reported Sample: biased towards females, but
stopping taking medication due to side effects representative of target population as
which included difficulty in getting an erection females tend to live longer than males
Reliability: high because of checking with
medical records, high because use of
structured questionnaire so if repeated you
could use the same questions
Measures of Non Lustman et al Adherence to a medical regime can be Data: Only quantative data so no reasons or Physiological Measures…read more

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Work Johansson 1984 Demands of a job can become overwhelming Usefulness: not very useful as computers Situational explanation of behaviour as
e.g. workload, lack of control, ambiguity etc. have moved on so there are less suggests that people wellbeing is
Johansson found in the Swedish Saw Mill breakdowns, but our expectations have shaped by their environment BUT the
that finishers were more stressed than the increased so some of the results still may long term effects are determined by the
cleaners be valid.…read more

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Noninvasive procedure
May not be valid because of social
desirability bias and demand
Combined Approach Johansson 1984 Not an approach in itself just a combination of Validity improved because measures
the other 2! can be compared
Cognitive Approach Meichenbaum Social Inoculation Therapy. Step 1: awareness Method: Field experiment gives high level of Preventative tactic not stopping it
to Managing Stress of thoughts we have in a stressful situation.…read more

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Interpretations as to what is normal is
open to interpretation and subjective
Cross over between disorders and
their characteristics aren't clearly
distinguished leading to errors in
Definitions Rosenhan and No single accepted definition of dysfunctional Based on Western Culture
Seligman behaviour Subjective to Clinician
Jahoda's model of mental health: suggested
we have ideal mental health id you have a
positive view of yourself, you are capable of
growth, you are independent and
selfregulating, you have an accurate view of
reality, you are resistant to…read more

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Usefulness: if we now understand how
phobias develop we can use them to treat
Biological Kendler et al Nature perspective Reductionist: Rules out environmental
Explanations All behaviour is inbuilt and so dysfunctional factors that could affect dysfunctional
behaviours is caused by biological factors behaviour by using twins
such as chemical, genetic influences or brain
Cognitive Pickup and Frith All behaviour is a consequence of thinking
Explanations processes and beliefs.…read more

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Biological Karp and Frank As it is suggested that disorder are
Treatments caused by biological factors,
treatment focusses on use of drugs
and medication to help change
chemical levels…read more


Just me :)

Hey have you done this for Forensic too?

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