Development and globalisation ALL case studies.

A documement containing all development and globalisation case studies I learnt including:

  • NIC/RIC, Malayasia
  • BRICS, China
  • India and offshore IT services
  • TNC, Coca cola
  • Trade bloc, EU
  • LLEDC, Bangladesh
  • Costa Rica and sustainable tourism
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Development and globalisation:
NIC/RIC, Malaysia:
Until the 1980s the economy was based on primary products such as rubber, palm
oil, timber, tin, oil.
It has emerged as the leader of the second wave of Asian `tiger economies'
averaging, between 1990 and mid 1997, an annual growth rate of 8%.
It was so successful because it had a central geographic position to ASEAN (a trading
bloc) made it a gateway to Eastern Asia, affordable land, liberal investment rules, it
also encouraged FDI through tax incentives. The countries industrial strategy
emphasised the development of high value goods for the domestic market and
export and the encouragement of high tech industries.
BRICS, China:
How has china grown so rapidly?
Large land area ­ resource rich.
Huge population ­ large, cheap labour force.
Well established trade links in Asia.
Relaxation of strict government policy ­ opened up the economy = increase in trade.
Made use of technology designed elsewhere.
China's urban population has increased rapidly from 10.6% in 1950 to 45.7% in 2008.
The value of China's international trade rose from $1.13 billion in 1950 to $2,561.6
billion in 2008 a 2,266 fold increase.
Consequences of growth:
Respiratory problems e.g. Asthma.
Life expectancy lowered by 5.5 years in some areas.
Lung cancer, strokes ­ linked to pollution levels.
Economic growth means more money invested into public services.
Rural ­ urban migration (8.5 million people a year).
16 of the worlds dirtiest cites are in China.
Brain drain to big cities.
Cross boarder tensions over pollution e.g. South Korea.
China's influence at the UN and around the world is increasing.
Rising international profile.
With rising affluence there is more awareness of freedoms (increasing pressure on
Chinese government for democratic reform).

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Disparities between rich and the poor areas of China e.g. Eastern China and urban
China are wealthier than rural and western areas.
Increased FDI.
Increasing GDP and rising average wages.
Low wages in some areas.
400 million people lifted out of poverty in the last two decades.
Increased car ownership and pollution
Coal used to generate electricity led to air pollution (1/2 the world's coal is burned in
Increased demand for energy as people become richer.…read more

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Employs 92,400 people.
Education programs.
Health initiatives ­ educating people about HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis.
Disaster relief donating money and clean water.
The replenish Africa initiatives (RAIN) providing clean water sources.
Coca cola youth foundation in the UK (youth education).
Donates to charities e.g. $2 million to the red cross for Haiti 2010.
Manual distribution model generated $500+ throughout East Africa.
"... Water stewardship, sustainable packaging, energy management and climate
protection." (Quote from their website).…read more

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To promote peace on the continent and guarantee future prosperity.
To reduce tariffs and other trade barriers between members.
To establish common external tariffs on imports from outside the union.
To allow free movement of capital, labour and other factors of production.
To establish common policies on agriculture, industry, fishing, energy and transport.
Key policies:
CAP ­ Common agricultural policy, to increase agricultural productivity.
Infrastructure ­ To improve cross boarder infrastructure.
Regional development policy ­ a fund to support underdeveloped regions of the EU.…read more

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Loss of control over their own economies.
If they share the currency they must have austerity measures after the recession
(reduced wages, higher taxes, and cuts to education, health, welfare, and
infrastructure spending).
Could disadvantage crop sales in a free market.
As they joined late they didn't get a say in the rules created.
LLEDC, Bangladesh:
Basic information about the population:
Total population ­ 154.7 billion.
Birth rate - 22.07 births/1,000 population.
Death rate - 5.67 deaths/1,000 population.
Infant mortality rate - 47.…read more

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Development spending has been concentrated on a number of different priorities
such as in 1970s reducing the cost of food for the poor, irrigation and flood
defences. In the 1980s focused on agricultural development and then in the 1990s on
small scale infrastructure such as roads.
In the 21 century investment has focused on education, health care, agricultural
development and micro finance projects.…read more

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Too many tourists in some areas.
Feeding the animals means they stay near humans.
Businesses falsely present themselves as being eco ­ friendly.
Locals exploited as cheap labour.…read more



Really good - thank you!

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