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2. Qua Regularity
The way the wider workings of the
universe function with consistent ANTHROPIC PRINCIPLE: existence of all
Aposteriori arg FOR God's existence. life in universe was dependent on
order and regularity e.g. Laws of many complex factors, being exactly as
Argues COR is emp. Evidence of ID and motion, gravity could only have they were, to the minute detail
higher purpose for life on earth been imposed by high power not
(self imposed)
Biological mechanisms such as Lacteal Speed of Big Bang
system, eye Gravity Distance
of Earth from Sun =
1. 19th C. PALEY So complex, couldn't have been
chance very unlikely suggests fine-tuning
Qua Purpose
Universe isn't like a rock, which on 1st ANALOGY Like
inspection due to its simple structure a watchmaker could only have made 3. St. Aquinas Qua Regularity
we'd assume it had always been there. the watch for the purpose of time The way in which inanimate objects/substances
But a watch, whose complex telling, so God could only have been act in orderly function/system nearly always in the
mechanisms suggest it's designed with the designer of the universe, for His same way, cannot be self-imposed, as they possess
a purpose purpose no consciousness or rationality. Systems must
therefore have been guided to their purpose like
an archer guides and arrow…read more

Slide 2

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2. DA gives no
2.2 Philosophical criticisms proof of God of
classical Theism
could be
apprentice God
INTRO The most 3. Unconvincing the great
that's moved
prolific crits of the order and regularity evident
onto better
DA = HUME is indicative of an immanent,
omniB/P, not apprentice
4. Criticises use of analogy in demonstrating
CONCLUSION Whilst crits do not sufficiently dismiss the DA,
God's methods. As we can't impose concepts of
they do provide significant doubt as many of the rel responses
human design onto those of a transcendent
are speculation. The most significant = idea that design is self-
ultimate designer. Anthropomorphise God =
imposed, as there is no way to verify that it is not
insufficient support for identifying design
10. Paley argues you can still
identify design in things that don't 5. Kant = similar
work perfectly = necessary for FW evidence of design is self-imposed
by mind, as we wish it to be there
9. JS MILL ­ Evil and
suffering = 6. Things have been proven
dysteleological objectively outside the mind to exist.
E.g. Empirically proven natural laws
8. Again unconvincing,
considering the amount of time is 7. EPICUREAN HYPOTHESIS
highly unlikely and the NL Order = inevitable, as though
governed by chance. They would universe was initially chaotic, order
still be in a state of change = not evolved gradually chance over LONG
so TIME…read more

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1.4 Scientific Criticisms
1. Evolution
Complexity actually = Natural Selection, whereby mutations cause
characteristic passes on and becomes prominent... Therefore the
organism becomes perfectly adapted to the needs to survive in its
environment. These qualities suggest supernatural design and purpose...
but are in fact the product of gradual and natural changes
2. Dawkins illustrates through "Mount Improbable" complex life (the peak),
can't be reached suddenly (steep face), but is possible through gradual
3. Brutality of nature "SOF" suggests absence of loving, just God (no
purpose) and contradicts the positive evidence that the DA uses (as it is
not perfect)
4. Pierre Laplace 19th C. Cosmologist: represents argument used by many in
the scientific community. Although we may not understand everything
now in the universe (ie. How the universe seems designed) science will
one day be able to explain everything, and God will not be needed to fill
in the gaps of our understanding. "I have no need of that Hypothesis…read more

Slide 4

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1.4 Scientific Criticisms
Most serious claim is EVOLUTION Empirical evidence, not subjective TI
interpretation of world ­ Complexity actually = Natural Selection, whereby RO
mutations cause characteristic passes on and becomes prominent... BA
Therefore the organism becomes perfectly adapted to the needs to survive in BL
its environment. These qualities suggest supernatural design and purpose... E
but are in fact the product of gradual and natural changes Evolution removes
need for DESIGNER
· Natural Selection can explain the process, but not how it started ­ how consciousness came from matter =
can only have been caused by supernatural external force (GOD)
· Problems with Evolution ­ lack of transitional forms and common ancestor
· Modern science can be used to support (ID) = discovery of bacterial flagellum = a biological system, that
must have existed of its creation with all its parts = irreducibly complex, no evolution
Dawkins ­ brutality and suffering evident in the survival of fittest is
evidence of dyteleological, as an OmniB/P. A just God would not allow
· God's hand is evident in aspects such as morality and beauty that aren't necessary for survival - not a
product of evolution
· ANTHROPIC PRINCIPLE = universe has formed so perfectly as to have brought about human life ­ suggests
fine-tuned, not chance
1. Scientific criticisms shouldn't be discredit, but don't require us to abandon DA ­ can't explain how evolution
2. Leaves space for deist, God as creator purpose…read more


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