Crusades Timeline

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The Crusades ­ A Timeline
Date Event Significance
312 Conversion of Emperor Christianity became the most important religion in
Constantine to Christianity Europe and bagan to spread gradually across the
continent. By c.600AD the majority of the Roman
Empire and its former territories were Christian. By
1000AD most of Russia and Scandinavia were also
330 The foundation of Established by Constatine as the adminastrative
Constantinople centre for the eastern part of his empire. The city
would become the capital of the Byzantine empire
and the home of the eastern church following the
permanent division of the empire in 395.
354-430 Life of St. Augustine of Wrote some important works on the justification of
Hippo war. Concluded that a just war must be proclaimed
by a legitimate authority, have a just cause such as
the recovery of property or defence, and be fought
with the right intension, ie. without cruelty or
excessive bloodshed.
410 The sack of Rome The most significant event in the decline of the
Roman Empire. For much of Europe Roman rule
was replaced by Barbarian Kingdoms established
be settlers from the nort and east.
c.500 Emergence of the Franks An example of one of the successful and enduring
Barbarian kingdoms of Europe which created a
political patchwork in the Dark Ages. Conflict and
migration were common features.
c.570 Birth of Mohammed Mohammed was believed to be the last and greatest
of the Muslim prophets. He was born in Mecca.
622 Mohammed and his This migration marks the start of the Islamic era.
followers migrate to Mohammed died in 632 having established Muslim
Medina to avoid authority across large areas of Hejaz and central
persecution and southern Arabia.
638 Capture of Jerusalem Muslim forces enter the city, expelling the
Christian Byzantine forces who had held it since
the collapse of the Roman Empire.
661 Establishment of the This dynasty ruled the Muslim Empire from
Umayyad dynasty Damascus for nearly 100 years. They oversaw the
continued expansion of the empire in the east and
west and the construction of the Dome of the Rock
in Jerusalem.
711 Muslim Conquest of Spain Muslim forces reach as far into mainland Europe as
southern France and occupy the majority of modern
day Spain.
750 Establishment of the Dscended from Mohammeds uncle. The dynasty
Abbasid dynasty ruled for 500 years and continued the expansion
begun by the Umayyad.
800 Corronation of The success of the Carolingian Kingdom and
Charlemagne Charlemegne's corronation as Emperor in Rome is
an example of the development of more stable

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Europe. These succeeded
the barbarian kingdoms and helped to secure the
position of the Catholic Church. Its influence had
declined by c.1000 due to internal division and
Viking raids.
C9th Two successive pope's Development of the idea of holy war.
raised military support by
promising spiritual benefits
Establishment of the Controlled large areas of modern day Egypt as well
Fatamid Caliphate as parts of north Africa and the Holy Land.…read more

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Investiture Controversy.
He also developed the idea of holy war by insisting
that all people owed service to God and that this
could be in a military form. He offered remission of
sins to those who fought for him in the Investiture
1074 Gregory proposes a holy Aimed to raise an army to aid the Byzantines
war in the Eastern Med against the muslims and possibly liberate Jerusalem
and unite the churches of east and west. Investiture
controversy ended his dream.…read more

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Council of Clermont (south Urban gives the speech that launches the First
(27 Nov) France) Crusade. He continues to preach on his tour of
France until September 1096, recruiting a large
number of Crusaders. Bishops and lay preachers
also spread the word.
1096 Peasant's Crusade leaves A mixture of peasants and lesser nobility, led by
(April) for Jerusalem Peter the Hermit and collected from north-east
France and north Germany.…read more

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Feb Jerusalem falls to the Fatamids send emissaries to the Crusaders to
Egyptian Fatamids discuss peace and access to Jerusalem.
March Baldwin becomes ruler of The first of the Crusader States.
3 June Antioch falls Bohemond's men able to enter due to treachery of a
city guard. Inhabitants massacred. A relieving
turkish army under Kerbogha lays seige to the city
and supplies run short. Alexius sent men to help but
they turn back when they meet Stephen of Blois
who is returning to Europe.…read more

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Duqaq of Domascus at Dog River. He had been
warned of the latter by the Emir of Tripoli.
1101 Defeat of new wave of Emphasises the isolation of the States as there is no
Crusaders in Anatolia safe route for new settlers or pilgrims.
1104 Capture of Acre Part of Baldwin's efforts to secure the ports of the
Holy Land. These would be vital to the survival of
the States as a source of trade, resources, pilgrims
and settlers.…read more

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Zengi becomes emir of Unified this with his own lands around Mosel and
Aleppo sought to expand into Frankish land. Proposed a
jihad and gradually began to unify the Muslim
1131 Melisende becomes Queen Fulk had arrived from Europe in 1129. He
and rules with her husband struggled to exert his authority in the early years
Fulk of Anjou and faced a revolt by Hugh of Jaffa.
1137-38, Emperor John Comnenus Raymond of Antioch is forced to acknowledge
1142-43 threatens Antioch Byzantine overlordship.…read more

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Battle of Inab Nuredin defeats Raymond of Poitiers, Prince of
Antioch . Raymond is killed. Most of the land
attached to Antioch is lost. Baldwin III marched
north to restore order.
1149 Egyptian caliph dies Next three caliphs all under age leaving the country
weak and vulnerable for 11 years.
1153 Ascalon captured by The last of the main ports of the coastline of
Baldwin III Outremer to fall. Greater security for the States.
Egypt left vulnerable.…read more

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Truce of 1180 broken by Saladin responds by attacking Galilee.
Reynaud de Chatillon.
1183 Saladin takes Aleppo The last of the major independant towns of Syria.
He now controls the majority of the land to the east
and south of the Crusader States, whilst his
Egyptian fleet dominates the seas to the west.
1183 A general tax levied Evidence of the financial problems facing the
Franks and the growing costs of war.…read more

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Frederick of Swabia. A huge blow to the
crusade, it also allows Saladin to move his forces
south to Acre.
1190 Richard and Philip depart Had been delayed by conflict between the two
July for Holy Land countries and the death of Henry II.
1191 Richard captures Cyprus Will become an important staging post in future
May crusades.
1191 Capture of Acre Town accepts harsh terms without Saladin's
July agreement, although he later agrees to honour them.…read more


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