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The cosmological argument is an a posteriori argument that attempts to prove the existence of God by inferring the
cosmos requires a creator. The classic comosmolgical argument goes as follows:

Things come into exisitence because something has cased them to happen
These things are caused to exisit…

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The most accepted scientific theory (the big bang) implies there was a beginning to the universe.
4. Rejection of the idea of the Christian God as the necessary being. Even if the universe does have a cause, there
is no reason to conclude that that God is the Christian God.…

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Ed Miller developed another version of the Kalam argument based on the passage of time. He argues:
An infinite universe would have an infinite number of days
The end of an infinite series of days cannot be reached
So today would have arrived, but it has
So the past cannot…

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The Steady State Theory
The Steadystate Theory was based on an idea that the universe didn't explode out of nothing (Big Bang
Theory) but instead has always existed, but with the added caveat that the matter that surrounds us is
continually and steadily trickling into existence.…

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R.F. Holland
Contingency definition of miracles They are rare occurrences, yet have natural explanations, but are given
miraculous interpretations.
His story ­ A boy is playing on a train track on his toy motor car and it gets stuck on the tracks. A train is due
to come and due…

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Swinburne agrees with Hume that natural laws are based on observation.
He emphasises two points distinct to Hume Firstly, laws on nature are generalisations. And
secondly, all natural laws are 'corrigible' (can be changed when a new discovery is made)
Swinburne defines a miracle as "an occurrence of a non…

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Also the idea of God acting in special or particular cases in response to prayers is
rejected. Wiles believes God acting in this way leads to questions about God being biased.
Wiles believes the whole of the universe reveals to his people that God is present and that he's

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2. Throwing hailstones from heaven
3. Defeating armies
4. Drowning soldiers
5. Answering prayers
6. Creating storms
Peter Vardy opposes miracles on a moral basis, following from Wiles. He says that "A God who intervenes
to cure an old man of cancer at Lourdes, but does not act to save…


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