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The most accepted scientific theory (the big bang) implies there was a beginning to the universe.
4. Rejection of the idea of the Christian God as the necessary being. Even if the universe does have a cause, there
is no reason to conclude that that God is the Christian God. Maybe it is a committee of gods who planned out
the universe together. The cosmological argument tells us nothing about a necessary being.…read more

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Ed Miller developed another version of the Kalam argument based on the passage of time.…read more

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The Steady State Theory
The Steadystate Theory was based on an idea that the universe didn't explode out of nothing (Big Bang
Theory) but instead has always existed, but with the added caveat that the matter that surrounds us is
continually and steadily trickling into existence. Rather bizarrely, many of the predictions based on the
Steadystate Theory were in agreeance with Einstein's theory of relativity. Both made clear predictions about
what the universe must be like.…read more

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R.F. Holland
Contingency definition of miracles They are rare occurrences, yet have natural explanations, but are given
miraculous interpretations.
His story ­ A boy is playing on a train track on his toy motor car and it gets stuck on the tracks. A train is due
to come and due to a curve in the track it is impossible for the driver to see the small boy. The mother
comes out of her house looking for her son and hears a train approaching.…read more

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Swinburne agrees with Hume that natural laws are based on observation.
He emphasises two points distinct to Hume Firstly, laws on nature are generalisations. And
secondly, all natural laws are 'corrigible' (can be changed when a new discovery is made)
Swinburne defines a miracle as "an occurrence of a non repeatable counter instance to the law of nature".…read more

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Also the idea of God acting in special or particular cases in response to prayers is
rejected. Wiles believes God acting in this way leads to questions about God being biased.
Wiles believes the whole of the universe reveals to his people that God is present and that he's
sustaining the universe, since he causes the whole universe to exist.
Criticisms of Wiles' views
1. Christian tradition
This depicts God acting in a much more direct way than Wiles suggests.…read more

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Throwing hailstones from heaven
3. Defeating armies
4. Drowning soldiers
5. Answering prayers
6. Creating storms
Peter Vardy opposes miracles on a moral basis, following from Wiles. He says that "A God who intervenes
to cure an old man of cancer at Lourdes, but does not act to save starving millions in Ethiopia... needs... to
face some hard moral questioning."
Reason: The capacity for logical. rational and analytic thought applying intellect to an issue.…read more


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