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Limestone: Heat + clay to make cement. Cement + sand = mortar. Mortar + aggregate = concrete.
Thermal Decomposition: CaCO3+ heat = CaO + CO2. All metals decompose to produce oxides and CO2.
Neutralising: CaO + H = CaHO +H
2O A solution of calcium hydroxide in water…

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Biofuels: Produced from plant material. Economic, ethical and environmental issues with their use.

Cracking: Hydrocarbons can be cracked to produce smaller, more useful molecules. This process
involves heating the hydrocarbons to vaporise them. The vapours are then passed over a hot catalyst.
Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons. Formula = C
nH2n .…

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Air: Mixture of gases with different B/M points so can be fractionally distilled to provide raw

Ionic Bonding: Complete transfer of outer shell electrons. Between metals and non-metals. Strong
electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions. Conduct when molten or dissolved as they
carry a current. Form giant…

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can be linked to a mass spectrometer, which can be used to identify the substances leaving
the end of the column

the position of the peaks on the output indicates the retention time

Subject Content
a mass spectrometer can identify substances very
quickly and accurately and can detect very small…

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reactant and the balanced symbol equation.
Even though no atoms are gained or lost in a chemical reaction, it is not always possible to obtain the
calculated amount of a product because:
the reaction may not go to completion because it is reversible / some of the product may be…

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Electrolysis: Pass an electric current through an ionic substance that is molten/in solution to break
them down into elements. The broken down substance is called the electrolyte. Used to electroplate
Reduction: At the cathode, positively charged ions gain electrons
Oxidation: At the anode, negatively charged ions lose electrons

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Cations: Add Sodium Hydroxide to excess. Calcium, Magnesium and Aluminium (dissolves in excess)

form white precipitates. Copper= Blue
Iron2+= Green
Iron3+= Brown
Carbonates: ABC + dilute acid Carbon Dioxide. Limewater will turn Cloudy.
Halide: Silver Nitrate Solution + Dilute Nitric Acid Silver Precipitate. Chloride Bromide=cream
Sulphates: Dilute Hydrochloric Acid…


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