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Chemistry C3
Development of the Periodic Table

The Early Periodic Table
Early periodic table based on atomic masses
Newlands law of octaves was the properties of elements repeated every eighth element
This failed because:
o He didn't allow for undiscovered elements
o Properties of the elements didn't match very well…

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Group 1The Alkali Metals
Very reactive ­ stored in oil to prevent them from reacting with oxygen in the air
Soft ­ can be cut with a knife
Low density ­ float on water
Low melting & boiling points (decrease down group_
React with air, water and halogens
React with…

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The Transition Elements
All metals with typical metal properties:
Good conductors
Strong & Dense
Higher melting and boiling points than metals in groups 1 & 2 (except mercury)
Used as building materials
Only react slowly with water and air
Often coloured
Can act as catalysts
Form positive ions…

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More about Acids and Bases

Strong & Weak Acids
Acids dissolve in water to form hydrogen ions which are also protons
Therefore acids are proton donors
In solution the protons are surrounded by water molecules and are hydrated, they are denoted
by H+ (aq)
A strong acid ionises fully in…

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Strong acid + Strong alkali ­Any indicator
W eak acid + Strong alkali ­P henolthalein
Strong acid + W eak alkali ­Menthyl Orange
Weak acid + Weak alkali can't be titrated because there is no endpoint

Adding an acid to an alkali produces a neutralisation reaction. The point at which…

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Water & Solubility
The Water Cycle
Water in the rivers, lakes and oceans of the Earth evaporates as the Sun supplies it with energy
The water vapour formed rises into the atmosphere where it cools and condenses into tiny
water droplets that form clouds
As the clouds rise, they…

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Water evaporates from large masses of water on the earth's surface and forms vapour. As this rises water droplets
condense and eventually fall to the surface as rain. This circulation of water is called the water cycle. When as much
solute as possible is dissolved in a solution at a…

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Hard water contains calcium and/or magnesium salts. These react with soap to form scum. The salts
also produce scale when the water is heated. This is a poor conductor of heat, and makes kettles and
water heaters less efficient. Hard water may be better for human health than soft water.…

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Summary ­ Water
The water cycle involves evaporation and condensation
Many ionic compounds and some molecular substances dissolve in water
The solubility of most solids increases as the temperature increases
A solution is saturated when it can't dissolve any more solute
The solubility of many gases decreases as the temperature…

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Energy Calculations

Comparing the Energy Produced by Fuels
The amounts of energy released when substances burn can be measured using a simple
calorimeter, e.g. by heating water in a glass or metal container. This method can be used to
compare the amount energy released by fuels and foods
Energy is…


kyce williams


thankyou, helped me a lot in my btec science

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