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Types of play:
What? - Mastery (develop muscle control in
Unorganised, spontaneous, order to feel a sense of control over
voluntary, fun, done for intrinsic environment)
value - Symbolic (make-believe & pretend play,
mimic roles `role rehearsal' )
- Rule-bound (structural activities where
Play & Recreation links: they can experience fun from
> Primary motive - fun competition & achievement: gains
> Informal structure PLAY independence, negotiation & compromise)
> Sense of well-being
Limitations:
> develop: physical, cognitive, - Space boundaries eg end of the road
social & emotional Concepts of - Time limits eg until teatime/break-time
> Outcome = non-serious - Sharing equipment eg play ground & garden
> Casual attitude throughout
physical
activity
Socialisation: The term given to the
process of individuals learning the can be active or
cultural norms and values of their passive
What?
society.
Opportunity based,
RECREATION intrinsic, loosely
Primary socialisation: occurs through
organised, voluntary
the immediate family group from birth
to approx. 3 years.
Why?
Secondary socialisation: occurs as the Pleasure, satisfaction,
child interacts w/ wider socialising social gains
agents such as school
Jessica Robinson…read more

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Positive values of sport Negative values of sport
Competitive: aiming to achieve what Gamesmanship: bend the rules of the
another is aiming to achieve at the same sport in order to gain an advantage.
time
What? Sportsmanship: qualities = fairness, Win at all costs: winning is primary aim
Highly structured, competitive, respect for opponents and playing within even it means breaking the rules eg take
skilful, extrinsic, serious, the rules. drugs
tactical & strategic Amateurism: participate in sport for the Cheating: deliberately breaking the rules
love of it and w/out a financial gain eg professional foul
Assertive: goal-directed, non-aggressive Aggression: behaviour in a sporting
Important factor: who we are and socialisation, behaviour in sporting situation situation which intends to cause harm to
and consequently whether we have accepted opponent
them or rejected them SPORT
BENEFITS
Individual Society
PROBLEMS Health & fitness Healthy society
Making new friends / Integration of society
Individual Society socialising
Take it too seriously Ambiguous pride Acquiring new skill Skills useful in life
Deviant behaviour in order to Forgives deviant behaviour Cathartic relaxed society
win
Relieves boredom Social control
`Armchair enthusiasts' rather Media encourage non-active
Sense of achievement Sport boom in
than participating
(intrinsic) industry
Discriminatory of female, Popular sports receive most Pride in self and
Participation Pyramid ethnic, disabled publicity community (football
Jessica Robinson
winnings)…read more

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Individual Society
Opportunity : Who? Cathartic Population occupied
> labour-saving 3 prerequisite of
For all who have Promotes physical & Re-creates energies for
gadgets ie washing leisure: free time,
the opportunity mental well-being work
machines opportunity &
Active leisure = Economic benefit ­ leisure
> transport = more choice health & fitness boom industry
access Entertainment Integrates society
> facilities Self-fulfilment
> Early retirement
friendship
Why? LEISURE Purpose
Enjoyment, stress relief, What?
self-development, Where? Leisure is `free time' to pursue
friendship, intrinsic, At a freely activities of your choice what
When? chosen place will enhance the quality of
health & fitness
Free time ones life
High culture Low culture
Reflects wealth, Popular culture "Surplus time left over after all
privileged Open to change w/ necessary chores have been Status of leisure:
education & trends of social completed." Before - Leisure for wealthy because they had the 3
background development prerequisites . Lower class encouraged to work &
leisure = waste of time.
Activities require = Activities = easy to Today ­ work to enjoy better quality of leisure time
refinement & understand, providing
understanding entertainment & quick
Higher social entertainment
classes Jessica Robinson…read more

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Characteristics: REMEMBER: The National Curriculum Physical Education (NCPE) has 6
- Organised School sport refers to extra-curricular activities and PE refers to groups of activities:
- Less competitive than sport the compulsory core PE lessons. 1. Games (invasion, striking & fielding)
- Learning skills 2. Athletics
KS3 = 3 options must be chosen 3. Swimming
- mental, social & physical health/skills KS4 = 2 options must be chosen 4. Dance
- Promote good values ie sportsmanship 5. Gymnastics
- Involuntary 6. Outdoor & adventurous activities
Problems with school sport: Aims of PE are to teach:
- Cant offer all sports ­ lack of funding for - Activity-specific skills: motor development
facilities/ transport - Fitness: physical development
- Enthusiasm from teachers ­ not paid
PHYSICAL - Knowledge of rules: cognitive
- Values: sportsmanship, appreciation of
- Risk assessment/ safety considerations EDUCATION healthy lifestyle and how exercise
- Pupils have competing leisure interests
and part-time jobs contributes to that
PE teachers use physical activities
PE Teacher Sports Coach to develop children's:
Similarities Differences · Confidence & self-esteem
Briefly understands all sport Full understanding of one sport
Participate in same sporting Teacher in school rather · Aesthetic appreciation
Mixed ability of children Participants are usually high ability activities than sport coach · Physical capabilities
Compulsory: national Voluntary Learn skills & tactics Conflicts between school · Social awareness
curriculum subject & club expectations · Creativity & expressiveness
Values eg. Teamwork, Values eg. Commitment, dedication (competitiveness)
sportsmanship & cooperation to training & competitiveness are Taught formally `win at all costs' may be
are encouraged encouraged emphasised more in club
sport
PE teacher my adopt role of a
coach
Jessica Robinson
Still aim to be successful/ win…read more

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What?
An escape, an adrenaline rush, not
bound by rules, in the natural Problems schools may face:
- Already a congested timetable
environment, a reliance on self and
- Lack of teacher specialists
others, challenging, involving - Lack of funding Benefits:
crucial decision making - Access to natural environment > Sense of freedom
- Safety risks > Leadership & response to
leadership
Key terms: > Appreciation to natural
Adventure ­ an undertaking that environment and issues
involves risk and may have an > Cross-curricular links in schools
unknown outcome OUTDOOR AND with geography
> Escape from pressures from
Objective danger ­ danger is not ADVENTUROUS urban lifestyle
under the control of an individual
ACTIVITIES
Subjective danger ­ danger that is
under the control of the individual
eg careful planning to avoid hazard
Mortlock (1984) suggests there are
Real risk ­ risk from environment
4 main stages of adventure:
which is beyond anyone's control
· Play ­ little challenge or risk
· Adventure ­ individual is
Perceived risk ­ potential risk an
Most desirable places in challenging situations
individual is aware of
relative to their skill levels
· Frontier adventure ­ individual
Outdoor education ­ educational
is experienced and skilful &
setting
able to explore wilderness
areas
Outdoor recreation ­ own free
· Misadventure - something has
time Jessica Robinson
gone wrong eg accident…read more

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