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GCSE Chemistry `Unit 3' written by Applequestria
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
..................................................................................................................................... 1
The early periodic table
........................................................................................................................... 3
Newlands's Law of Octaves:
................................................................................................................ 3
Mendeleev's Periodic Table of Elements:
........................................................................................... 3
The modern periodic table
....................................................................................................................... 4
Trends within the periodic table
.............................................................................................................. 5
The alkali metals (group one):
............................................................................................................. 5
The halogens (group seven):
............................................................................................................... 5
Trends within the periodic table (continued)
........................................................................................... 6
The transition elements (between group two and group three):
........................................................ 6
Hard and soft water
.................................................................................................................................…read more

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Making ammonia (continued)
................................................................................................................ 11
Alcohols
.................................................................................................................................................
12
Methanol, ethanol and propanol:
..................................................................................................... 12
Uses of alcohols:
................................................................................................................................ 12
Carboxylic
acids...................................................................................................................................... 13
Carboxylic acids:
................................................................................................................................ 13
Uses of carboxylic acids:
.................................................................................................................... 13
Esters
.....................................................................................................................................................
14
Esters:
................................................................................................................................................ 14
Uses of esters:
................................................................................................................................... 14
Energy from reactions
............................................................................................................................ 15
Use of calorimetry method:
.............................................................................................................. 15
Use of calorimetry results:
................................................................................................................…read more

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Energy from reactions (continued)
......................................................................................................... 16
Energy from reactions (continued)
......................................................................................................... 17
Energy bond calculations:
................................................................................................................. 17
Fuel cells:
........................................................................................................................................... 17
Analysing substances
............................................................................................................................. 18
Tests for positive ions
........................................................................................................................ 18
Analysing substances (continued)
.......................................................................................................... 19
Tests for negative
ions....................................................................................................................... 19
Analysing substances (continued)
.......................................................................................................... 20
Use of titration, to find concentrations of acids and bases method:
................................................ 20
Use of titration, to find concentrations of acids and bases results (mol/dm3):
................................. 20
Analysing substances (continued)
..........................................................................................................…read more

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The early periodic table
In the nineteenth century, scientists attempted to classify the elements by arranging them in
order of their relative atomic masses (mass number, because atomic number wasn't
discovered until the twentieth century when electrons, protons and neutrons were
discovered). When the elements were listed by arranging them in order of their relative atomic
masses, scientists noticed that similar properties occurred at regular intervals. The list can be
arranged in a table so that elements with similar properties are in columns (groups).…read more

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