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Zed Revision Guide
CHEMISTRY

UNIT 1 GCSE AQA








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WRITTEN BY: Zain Zaman
ILLUSTRATED BY: Zain Zaman














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C1: The fundamentals of chemistry

Atomic Mass (Mass Number)
23
Na

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Proton Number (Atomic Number)
11









Protons
Shell




ElectronsNeutron






Protons and Neutrons build up to make a nucleus.


Periodic Table

Group 1 = Alkali Metals (v.reactive)

Metal + water Metal Hydroxide + hydrogen
Metal Oxide
Metal + Oxygen


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Electronic Configuration example

2:1

2 is amount of electrons in first shell and 1 is amount of electrons in second
shell. It differs per element. This electronic configuration is for Lithium.


Ionic Bonding

Ionic Bonding is when atoms gain electrons or lose electrons. When this
happens they are called a…

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Building Statues

Limestone + clay (heat) cement

Limestone + clay + sand Mortar

Limestone + Clay + Sand + Aggregate (Small Stones) Concrete


Quarrying

Limestone found in rock

We get limestone out of the ground by quarrying

Negatives to quarrying

Noise

Dust

Pollution

Spoil Landscape

Land destroyed cant be used…

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(Thermal decomposition)
HEAT!!!
CaCO3(p) > CaO+CO2(p)
Lime CycleCalcium Carbonate

CaCO3 (p)



ADD CARBONDIOXIDE


Calcium Oxide CaO
+ Carbon dioxide
Lime Cycle
Calcium Hydroxide SolutionCa(OH)2(p) (aqueus)


ADD WATER

Solid Calcium HydroxideCa(OH)2(p)
This is an alkaline which can be used to neutralise acid soil/lake.
ADD MORE WATER



(ALKALINE)



Test for Carbon Dioxide…

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Decomposing Carbonates

Calcium Carbonate Calcium Oxide + Carbon dioxide

Copper Carbonate Copper Oxide + Carbon dioxide




Extracting Metals

Metal Ore

Metal is chemically combined with impurities (oxygen).

Ore with impurities






Concentration



Ore without impurities




Chemical Reaction




Oxygen

Metal





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These methods of extractions may not always be economically valuable such
as it may cost £1000 to extract it but the metal may only be worth £800
therefore it is NOT economically valuable.


Methods to extract metals

Displacement reaction

Iron oxide + Carbon Iron + Carbon dioxide.

Using electrolysis to…

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The plant absorbs metal from the ore therefore after a while you burn the
plant and the ashes will have the rest of the metal without impurities.


Bioleeching

Bacteria growing on the ore




Ore


It creates a solution which requires to go through electrolysis or displacement
to get the metal…

Comments

ArunJuss

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This is awesome :D

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