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C2 1.1 Chemical Bonding
· Elements react together to form compounds by gaining or
losing electrons or by sharing electrons.
· The elements in Group 1 react with the elements in Group
7. As they react, atoms of Group 1 elements can each lose
one electron to gain the stable electronic structure of a
noble gas. This electron can be given to an atom from
Group 7, which then also achieves the stable electronic
structure of a noble gas.…read more

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C2 1.2 Ionic Bonding
· Ionic compounds are held together by strong forces of
attraction between the oppositely charged ions. This is
called ionic bonding.
· Besides the elements in Groups 1 and 7, other elements
that can form ionic compounds include those from Groups
2 and 6.…read more

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C2 1.3 Formulae of ionic
· The charges on the ions in an ionic compound always
cancel each other out.
· The formula of an ionic compound shows the ratio of ions
present in the compound.
· Sometimes we need brackets to show the ratio of ions in a
compound, e.g. magnesium hydroxide, Mg (OH)2.…read more

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C2 1.4 Covalent Bonding
· Covalent bonds are formed when atoms share pairs of
· Many substances containing covalent bonds consist of
simple molecules, but some have giant covalent
structures.…read more

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C2 1.5 Metals
· The atoms in metals are closely packed together and
arranged in regular layers.
· We can think of metallic bonding as positively charged
metal ions which are held together by electrons from the
outermost shell of each metal atom. These delocalized
electrons are free to move throughout the giant metallic
lattice.…read more

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