Chemistry Unit 1 Revision Notes [GCSE AQA]

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Atoms and Atomic structure:
Atoms consi
st
of
elect
rons
surr
ounding
a nucl
eus t
hat cont
ains
prot
ons
and
neutr
ons.
Neut
rons
ar
e neut
ral
,
b ut
pr
otons
and el
ectr
ons ar
e el
ectr
ical
ly
charged.
Prot
ons
have
a posi
ti
ve
charge
and
el
ect
rons
h ave
a negat
ive
charge.
Atoms and elements:
Atoms are
not t
he small
est
parti
cl
e s
of
ma tt
e r
.
Inst
ead ,
they
have a
sma l
l centr
al
nucleus surr
ou nded
b y
even
sma l
ler
parti
cles
call
ed
electrons. Al
l
substances
a r
e ma de
from atoms. An element i
s ma de
of
on l
y one t
yp e
atom. The
atoms
of
an y
eleme nt
are
d i
ff
erent
fr
om t
he
atoms of
any ot
her
e l
eme nt
.
S o
the at
oms i
n i
ron ar
e diff
erent
t
o
those
i
n
sulphu r
,
an d
the
atoms
in
carbon ar
e
dif
ferent
f
rom t
h ose
of
oxygen
.
The
a t
oms
of
e ach
element ar
e repr
esented
by chemi
cal
symb ol
s.
These
u sual
ly
consist
of
one or
t
w o
dif
fer
ent
let
ter
s.
The f
ir
st
let
ter
i
n a chemical
symbol
i
s al
w ays
an
uppercase l
ett
er,
and t
he other
l
ett
ers
are
always
lowercase.
So ,
t
he symbol
for
magn esi
um is
Mg.
E ver
y el
eme nt
has i
ts
ow n
ch emi
cal
symb ol
.
For
examp l
e,
i
ron i
s Fe,
sul
phu r
i
s S,
sodi
um is
Na and
oxyge n
is
O
.
The periodic table:
Ther
e ar
e
mo r
e
than
1 00
dif
fer
e nt
el
eme nt
s. The
pe r
iodi
c t
a bl
e i
s a
chart
show i
n g
a l
l
the
eleme nt
s
ar
ranged
in a
parti
cul
a r
way.
The vert
ical
col
umn s
in
the peri
odic
tabl
e are
call
e d
groups.
E ach
gr
oup cont
ains el
eme nt
s t
hat have
simil
ar
propert
ies.
The
peri
od i
c t
abl
e
has eight main groups.
For
example,
group 1
contai
ns very
react
ive
me t
a l
s such
as sodium,
w hi
le
grou p
7
contai
ns very
r
eacti
ve
n onme tal
s such
as chl
ori
ne .
The
ma ss numb er
i
s t
he
numb er
of
protons and neutr
on s.
The
atomic
nu mber
o f
an
elemen t
i
s t
he numb er
of
prot
o ns.
The number of
protons i
s equi
valent
to
t
he number of
el
ectr
o ns
.

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Reactions and compounds:
New
substances
are f
orme d
by
chemical
react
ions.
When
elements
react
t
ogether
t
o f
orm
c
o mpounds
thei
r
a t
oms
joi
n t
o ot
her
atoms usi
ng chemi
cal
bonds.
For
example,
i
ron
and sul
phur
r
eact
t
ogether
to
form a
comp ound
call
ed i
ron
sulphi
de
and
w hen
sodium and
oxygen
react
t
oget
her
it
f
orms
sodium oxi
de.…read more

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Equations:
Wh en
eleme nt
s ar
e
joi
ned t
o cause
a
chemical
react
ion,
no atoms ar
e ma de
or l
ost
duri
ng t
h e
pr
oce ss,
but
at
t
h e
end
of
it
they ar
e j
o i
ned di
ff
erentl
y f
rom the
w ay
they
w er
e at
the
star
t.…read more

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Metals:
Metal
s ar
e very
useful
.
O res
are nat
ural
ly
occurr
ing
rocks
that
cont
ain
me t
al
or
me t
a l
compound s
i
n suf
fi
ci
ent amoun t
s t
o ma ke
it
wort
hwhil
e ext
racti
ng
them. I
ron
ore
is
used t
o make
ir
on and st
eel.…read more

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Gold
is
so unr
e act
ive,
i
t
can
be f
ound as
the
nati
ve
metal
and
not
as
a
compound,
so i
t
does
not
need
to be
chemicall
y separ
ated.
However,
chemi
cal
r
eact
ions
ma y
be needed
to
remove
other
el
eme nt
s t
ha t
might
contami
nate
the
me t
al.…read more

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Raw material Contains Function
i
ron
ore i
ron
oxi
de a
compound
that
cont
ains
ir
on
(
haema t
it
e)
c
o ke car
bon bur
ns
in
air
t
o pr
oduce
heat,
and
react
s t
o f
orm
car
bon
monoxi
de (
needed
to
reduce
the
ir
on oxi
de)
l
i
mest
one cal
ci
um hel
ps
to
remove
aci
dic
impur
it
ies
fr
om
the
ir
on
by
react
ing
w i
th
car…read more

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Alloys:
The
p r
ope r
ti
es of
a
me tal
ar
e changed by
incl
uding
other
el
eme nts,
such
as car
bo n.
A
mixture
of
two or
mo r
e el
e ments,
where
a t
l
east
one el
eme nt
is
a metal
,
is
call
ed
an al
loy.
Al
loys
c
o nt
ain
a t
oms
of
dif
ferent
si
zes,
w hi
ch di
stor
t
the r
egular
ar
rangeme nts
of
atoms.…read more

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The
tr
ansi
ti
on
metal
s ar
e f
ound i
n t
he
lar
g e
block
between Groups
2 and
3 i
n t
he
per
iodi
c t
abl
e.
Most
metal
s ar
e
pl
aced her
e,
incl
udi
ng i
ron,
t
it
anium, copper
and
nickel
.
The
tr
ansi
ti
on
met
als
have
these
proper
ti
es
in
common
:
They
are
me t
a ls.
They
for
m coloured compounds.…read more

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Copper:
Copper
is
a tr
ansiti
o n
me tal.
I
t i
s sof
t,
easi
ly
be nt
and
it
i
s a
good
conduct
or of
el
ectrici
ty.
This make s
coppe r
usef
u l
f
or
elect
ri
cal
wir
ing.
Copper does not react with water,
wh i
ch makes i
t
useful
f
or
pl
umb i
ng.
C opper i
s
purif
ied by el
ectr
olysi
s.…read more

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Al
uminium
extr
acti
on i
s expensi
ve because the process needs a lot of electrical energy.
Ti
tani
um ext
ract
ion
is
expensive
because the process involves several stages an d
a l
ot
of
ener
gy.
Thi
s especi
all
y l
i
mits
the uses
of
ti
tan i
um.…read more

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