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Background
· 1870 Education Act (Foster Act) :- meant church run
schools were allowed to continue but now
government could create schools known as `board
schools'
· 1880 :- School became compulsory for ages 5-10
· 1902 Education Act :- Set up secondary schools by
councils
· 1918 :- Increased school leaving age from 12-14
1944 Education Act (Butler) :- The most important Act
concerning education which was passed by a wartime
coalition but carried out by a Labour government. (Attlee)…read more

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1944 Butler Education Act
· There was a general consensus regarding education and this
period and this pragmatic approach is a landmark in British
education. Until then, schools were mainly left to local
authorities without government involvement but this Act
changed it.
· Introduced the tripartite system :- children were to do IQ tests
ages 10 or 11 to decide which school they will go to. These tests
became national in 1945.
· Although the act set out free secondary education for all, it did
not specify the structures of school.
· The main focal point was for education to be "equal but…read more

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Tripartite System
However, by 1958 technical schools accounted to less than 4% so in
reality it was more of a two-tier system…read more

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Comprehensive Education
· Socialists and the left of Labour began to think there should be an
equal comprehensive system ­ (many liberals agreed) and
furthermore it became increasingly difficult to argue that a child's
intellectual capacity was genetically fixed.
· Another argument was that there is no true measure of intelligence
and middle-class children were from the onset at an advantage being
able to get coaching and practise which led working-class children to
fall behind
· By 1960 a few comprehensive schools had been set up and around 5%
of the population attended comprehensives.
· The first purpose built comprehensive school was Kidbrooke in 1955
· Between 1960-64, the conservatives increased comprehensives from
5% to 20% (area of consensus)…read more

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Teaching
· In 1965 when Wilson came to power he too liked the comprehensive
system but rather than passing a law he influenced local councils
(with the help of his Education minister Tony Crosland)
· The 1960s was a period for new ideas about teaching methods
(progressive) something which could be attached to the labour party
more so. Around this time the black papers attacked comprehensive
schools in 1968 due to falling of standards.. Was it just a right wing
attack?
· The conservatives regained power in 1970 and Thatcher became
education minister (Thatcher the milk snatcher)
· In 1976 another report was published known as the `Yellow Book'
with recommendations for school discipline with traditional teaching…read more

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