Slides in this set
Issues:- pay discrimination, job opportunities, maternity leave
Sex = refers to biological differences
Gender = refers to the role that has been assigned to men and women by society
Patriarchy = system in which men dominate women in a variety of areas such as
cultural and economic, it is the main issue for feminists
Men are favoured for executive jobs which is known as the glass ceiling.
In religion, women are not allowed to be priests or the pope.
Women face under-representation in politics
Female celebrities on TV are often focused on looks, you often get older male
presenters but only relatively young women.
Whereas in African Cultures, women spend the day doing hard physical labour
while men remain largely idle.
For most women, paid employment must be fitted around a full time domestic
1967 legalisation of abortion and availability of contraceptives
1969 Divorce Reform Act allowed divorce by mutual consent
1970 Equal Pay Act for both men and women doing the same job
1975 Sex Discrimination Act banned discrimination against women (and
men) monitored by the Commission for Equality and Human Rights
1976 Child Benefit Act family and child tax allowances paid to the
1999 all female employees entitled to 52 weeks maternity (or adoption)
and 39 being paid, rising to 52 paid from April 2010
2002 all-women shortlists allowed
Almost all Acts introduced were Labour Acts…read more
WOMEN IN POLITICS
Male culture does not welcome women into politics and whilst attitudes have
become more sympathetic, there still remains a deep-seated sexism.
John Major's first cabinet contained no women at all.
Nearly 100 years after women got the vote, the political system still represents
inequalities between the sexes.
1918 women over 30 could vote
1928 women could vote equally to men
Men currently outweigh women by 4:1 in parliament.
In a cabinet of 23, only 4 are women.
32% of councilors are women but only 12.3% are council leaders.
Only 13.3% are elected majors and only 14.6% of police and crime
commissioners are female.…read more
Rwanda has the best representation of women in politics with 56.3%
and is closely followed by Wales with 50%.
Many countries with a highly educated population have a low
representation of women:-
All countries with over a `threshold'
level of 30% (critical minority) of
women have at some point
introduced equalising strategies such
as quotas.…read more
Only aims to constitute a critical minority of Goes against equal opportunities
30 or 40% (quotas)
Quotas can be a temporary measure until Bias towards women
the barriers for women in politics are
DOES NOT DISCRIMINATE BUT Can perhaps put some better skilled men
Women have the right for equal and fair Women elected through positive
representation discrimination may be less respected
Women's experiences and input are May result in less competent legislature
needed in political life (e.g. abortion laws)
It is not violating voters as parties control
Elections and democracy are about