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INTERNAL FACTORS
CLASS
DIFFERENCES
IN
ACHIEVEMENT…read more

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INTERNAL FACTORS -
LABELLING
Labelling theory ­ highlights the ways in which teachers
make judgements about the types of children they deal with
and attach mental labels to them.
It is useful as it pigeonholes students (tells teachers what
their classes are like)
Major concern of labelling is put forward by interactionist
sociologists.…read more

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LABELLING IN
SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Howard Becker (1971) ­ based on interviews with teachers.
Judged students on how closely they fitted the image of the
ideal pupil. Research showed that teachers based labels on
stereotypes rather than evidence. Once attached, these
labels can be `sticky' and hard to lose.
A label becomes part of a student's internal identity and
causes a self fulfilling prophecy (living up to their label).…read more

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LABELLING IN
SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Hargreaves et al (1975) ­ overt participant observations,
unstructured interviews in 2 Northern schools; 3 steps in
labelling.
Speculation ­ teachers make guesses about students based
on appearance, enthusiasm and relationships.
Elaboration ­ teachers test their speculation which is
gradually confirmed or contradicted.
Stabilisation ­ the label becomes fixed and all behaviour
interpreted in terms of label.…read more

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THE SELF-
FULFILLING
PROPHECY
A prediction that comes true simply because it has been
made, i.e. if you are labelled as a troublemaker you will
become one.
Interactionists say this will severely affect educational
achievement.
How it works:
Teacher labels a pupil (e.g. very intelligent) makes
predictions about them.
Teacher starts to treat the pupil accordingly (giving them
extra work, expecting higher standards of work)
Pupil internalises the expectation, which becomes part of
their self concept (how they see themselves)…read more

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