Civil Rights - 1945-61 - and the Role of the Presidents

Outlines the roles of Truman and Eisenhower in the advancement of civil rights in the USA.

HideShow resource information
Preview of Civil Rights - 1945-61 - and the Role of the Presidents

First 488 words of the document:

History Civil Rights: 1945-61 Role of the Presidents
The Truman & Eisenhower Years
WWII = 1941-1945 (USA involvement). This war saw millions of black Americans fight for
the liberation of Europe from Hitler's fascist oppression and mass genocide.
Blacks saw the hypocrisy of America entering to defend democracy when it was not a
Racial tension high due to Great Migration and ergo the overcrowding of the cities. I.e.
race riots.
Blacks gain bargaining power for first time. Randolph blackmails Roosevelt into giving him
FEPC (Fair Employment Practices Committee), but this had no real power (Congress cut
funding after greater powers given in 1943). E.g. 8000 cases referred to FEPC, only 1/3 not
dismissed. Only 1/5 of all actions were black victories.
Supreme Court ruling: Smith vs. Allwright ­ forced all states to have black and white
primaries. In south they resorted to illegality to avoid ruling. De Jure only.
Overall more NAACP members, more CORE activism and federal government aid seen as
GI Bill of Rights 1944 = gave black servicemen the right to a higher education.
The Truman Years = 1945 ­ 1952
How Truman helped Black people (1945-48)
Publically spoke out against the lynching and attacks on returning black servicemen in
1945/6. = Moral Precedent & Moral Superiority­ If President (POTUS) speaks out then
must be bad. Needed to show Soviets that USA morally superior.
Supported To Secure These Rights in 1947. (p.48) Called for an end to poll tax, intro of
anti-lynching laws and end to discrimination in Armed Forces (AF) = Symbolic action
Spoke in State of the Union address against segregation and discrimination, and supported
above report. = Symbolic action & Moral Superiority.
First President to speak to NAACP. = Symbolic.
Executive Orders: end to segregation of AF; fair employment in the Civil Service (CS); set
up FEB. Nb. AF de-segregation only came about in 1950 due to Korean War. = Symbolic
Action & Social imp of quality of life. De Jure exc. AF+CS by 1950.
Shelley v Kraemer ­ Prevents discrimination when buying houses in white areas. FAIL. =
Social imp.
How Truman helped Black people (1948-52)
First President to campaign in Harlem Gained 2/3 of black vote in 1948 election.
Believed in "equality of opportunity".
He increased public housing for black people = imp of quality of life.
Appointed a black Governor of the American Virgin Islands & a black judge on to the
Federal Circuit Courts. = Symbolic Action.
Inaugural address was integrated and DC Airport was desegregated. = Symbolic ­ if Capital
is desegregated then why not rest of country?
Set up CGCC (Committee on Government Contract Compliance). However, only advisory
Urban Renewal programme FAILED because though it created more spacious housing, it
also created more black hobos.
*Ei refers to Eisenhower

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

History Civil Rights: 1945-61 Role of the Presidents
Conclusion: By 1952 only 5 states still had poll tax. Truman mainly symbolic. But had Rep
Congress + Korean War.
The Eisenhower Years = 1953 ­ 1961 Let Sleeping Dogs Lie
How Eisenhower helped Black People (1953-55)
Hired a black man = Morrow. = Symbolic.
Appointed Earl Warren to Supreme Court. V. Lib. = Imp of Social situation.
Brown I ­ Thurgood Marshall brought case that argued that segregation against 14th
Amendment. Case won against Eisenhower's wishes.…read more


No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all resources »