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Page 1

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Black soldiers: - 1.2 million black men joined the US army
Experience helped them understand the extent to which they
were discriminated against
Hypocrisy of USA discovered; fighting war of freedom yet
Blacks in the USA treated as 2nd class citizens double V sign
Segregation continued in war, some…

Page 2

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Grandfather and literacy clauses denied blacks the right to
Discrimination in the army
Employment and education inequality; black workers got 45c/h
white workers got 65c/h ; black teachers earn $765 less than
white teachers
Separate but equal was not working
Recommendations: - govt should step in and help blacks…

Page 3

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Jim Crow laws:
Popular challenges to segregation: - NAACP used the courts to challenge
1945-55 golden years of the NAACP
Took Jim crow laws to court
Put pressure on politicians in Washington
Organised popular resistance to racism in the south
NAACP : - created to get Black rights, counter…

Page 4

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Voting rights 1.5 % black voters 1940 to 17.3% black voters 1947
1946 NAACP lynching unit collected evidence from lynching
sites and brought criminals to justice lynching had decline by
CORE journey of reconciliation failed but showed that legal and
non-violent campaigns could be linked
UDL bus boycott unsuccessful…

Page 5

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KKK revival Emmitt till was lynched. His murders face an all white
jury and were found not guilty.
NAACP banned in many states
1956 southern manifesto signed by 101 congressmen, it said
that the supreme court's decision was unconstitutional as
education wasn't mentioned in the constitution.
Eisenhower said that it…

Page 6

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Led to NAACP legal case and direct action targeting local bus
MIA created under MLK organised boycott of all buses until
segregation had ended, committed to non-violence
Boycott lasted a year 85% of blacks in Montgomery boycotted
buses this hit the whites economically 65% of revenue was lost

Page 7

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1955-62 CR campaign showed power but effect was only case-by-case didn't end
segregation for all.

Civil rights campaigns1963-65:
Birmingham campaign1963: Birmingham's bull o'connor reacted violently to
civil right this would give MLK the media sympathy.
MLK hoped provoking O'connor and subsequent violence would
lead to desegregation of the city.

Page 8

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800 northerners volunteered (many were white) to campaign.
Escorted blacks to registration offices, established 30 `freedom
KKK and police put up resistance 30 homes and 37 churches
were bombed, over 1000 arrests. white juries didn't convict KKK
members who killed 3 CR activists till 2005
17,000 blacks tried to…

Page 9

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King's failure made him weaker blacks turned to radical groups
Johnson wouldn't support king due to king's opposition to
Poor people's campaign 1968:
Nationwide civil disobedience, boycotts, march on Washington
by all minority groups and poor whites
Demanded; $30 billion to combat poverty; govt commitment to
full employment; ½…

Page 10

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CR bill could not be postponed anymore too much support
Johnson knew how to get the bill passed
Liberal democrats replaced conservative southern democrats
more support for CR
Act would be Kennedy's legacy

Supreme Court:

Earl warren chief justice sympathetic to CR
Civil rights could use new common law to…




Brilliant Notes... going to be a real help... :D

Shinelle Nhyira


Amazing notes, just what I was looking for 



Amazing!!!Preeya what a star you are.

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