edexcel history american civil rights notes AS

Here are my revision notes for edexcel history topic D2, hope they're helpful :)

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  • Created by: Preeya
  • Created on: 02-06-11 11:48
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Black soldiers: - 1.2 million black men joined the US army
Experience helped them understand the extent to which they
were discriminated against
Hypocrisy of USA discovered; fighting war of freedom yet
Blacks in the USA treated as 2nd class citizens double V sign
Segregation continued in war, some denied right to fight, sent
to most dangerous parts of battle
There was no formal segregation in Europe
Changed the minds of white soldiers, seen as equals at times
Encourage black Americans to fight for their own equality
Economic Changes: - factories for war goods would not employ blacks
A. Phillip Randolf threatened march on Washington if govt
didn't change employment, showed that putting pressure on
govt could improve racial equality
FEPC created to help get blacks jobs
Migration from south to north for jobs in cities
Blacks paid better than before
Unemployment of blacks 1940 937,000 1945 151,000
Blacks paid less than white counterparts
Political Changes: - before war 2% Blacks could vote 1945 15% of Blacks voted
Number of lynching increased after war
North Black communities could sway elections
Elected Dawson and Powell into congress
Politicians now began to appease Blacks for voted using
affirmative action
Social Changes: -southern states still remained segregated
North eating, transport and education integrated but blacks
were poorer and were forced into ghettos
Truman (1945):
Truman (democrat) Committed to challenging southern racism ­ knew the
importance of Black votes
To secure these rights: - 1946 president's committee on civil rights established
`To secure these rights' report, highlighted black's problems,
proposed radical change
Lynching seen as big problem 300 in 5 states over 60 years
Police brutality ie pistol and bull whipping, forced blacks to admit
to crimes they hadn't committed, drowning

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Grandfather and literacy clauses denied blacks the right to
Discrimination in the army
Employment and education inequality; black workers got 45c/h
white workers got 65c/h ; black teachers earn $765 less than
white teachers
Separate but equal was not working
Recommendations: - govt should step in and help blacks
Enforce civil rights at local level
More funding to civil rights department
Create permanent presidential and congressional civil rights
Remove funding from racist organisations
Outlaw police brutality , force police to intervene in mob…read more

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Jim Crow laws:
Popular challenges to segregation: - NAACP used the courts to challenge
1945-55 golden years of the NAACP
Took Jim crow laws to court
Put pressure on politicians in Washington
Organised popular resistance to racism in the south
NAACP : - created to get Black rights, counter hatred & racial discrimination
1939 membership 50,000 1942 membership 450,000
Went to court because they could take the fed or state govt to
court when their constitutional rights were being infringed.…read more

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Voting rights 1.5 % black voters 1940 to 17.…read more

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KKK revival Emmitt till was lynched. His murders face an all white
jury and were found not guilty.
NAACP banned in many states
1956 southern manifesto signed by 101 congressmen, it said
that the supreme court's decision was unconstitutional as
education wasn't mentioned in the constitution.…read more

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Led to NAACP legal case and direct action targeting local bus
companies.…read more

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CR campaign showed power but effect was only case-by-case didn't end
segregation for all.
Civil rights campaigns1963-65:
Birmingham campaign1963: Birmingham's bull o'connor reacted violently to
civil right this would give MLK the media sympathy.
MLK hoped provoking O'connor and subsequent violence would
lead to desegregation of the city.
Birmingham was committed to seg and there were no black
policemen , fire-fighters, bank workers or bus drivers.
Organised by SCLC focused campaign on deseg of public places
in city, end racial discrimination in employment.…read more

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Escorted blacks to registration offices, established 30 `freedom
KKK and police put up resistance 30 homes and 37 churches
were bombed, over 1000 arrests. white juries didn't convict KKK
members who killed 3 CR activists till 2005
17,000 blacks tried to register only 1,600 did
Johnson and CR broke apart and American system seen as
Selma Campaign 1965: - register black voters
SCLC focussed on Alabama because 1% of blacks registered to
vote, and sheriff would put up violence.…read more

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King's failure made him weaker blacks turned to radical groups
Johnson wouldn't support king due to king's opposition to
Poor people's campaign 1968:
Nationwide civil disobedience, boycotts, march on Washington
by all minority groups and poor whites
Demanded; $30 billion to combat poverty; govt commitment to
full employment; ½ million new houses a year.…read more

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CR bill could not be postponed anymore too much support
Johnson knew how to get the bill passed
Liberal democrats replaced conservative southern democrats
more support for CR
Act would be Kennedy's legacy
Supreme Court:
Earl warren chief justice sympathetic to CR
Civil rights could use new common law to help enforce
Conclusion: congress, Supreme Court or president couldn't enforce defacto
changes but ending segregation came from their support.…read more



Brilliant Notes... going to be a real help... :D

Shinelle Nhyira

Amazing notes, just what I was looking for 


Amazing!!!Preeya what a star you are.

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