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Phonological Development
Plosives: where air is held back then released--p, b, d, t, k, g
Fricatives: have a vibrating quality-- f, v, th (think), th (these)
Sibilants: hissing sounds--s, z, sh, ge
Affricates: combination of plosive and sibilant--ch, j, dg
Nasals: air comes out the nose-- m, n, ng
Liquids/Approximants: vague sounds--l, w, r, h, y
Diphthongs: vowels joined together-- I, ow, u
Short vowels: a, e, i, o, u…read more

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Phonological Development: Babies
· The first noises a baby make are by accident The nest step is to vary the sounds so
and are long open vowel sounds such as that different consonants string such as
"aaaaaa" or "ooooooo". They discover their "babagaga" or "mamadada".
vocal chords and make noises for fun or to
show contentment. This is known as Even at this early stage children are
`cooing'. picking up intonation from the adults
around them and will use it to express
· After a while babies discover they can make
their feelings.
different sounds by moving their lips and/or
tongue and changing the way air comes out. Somewhere around the first birthday
The first consonants are usually nasals like the average child says their first
`m' because they're easy to produce. recognizable word. However there will
· Once babies can make some language still be vocal play. Sometimes
sounds they experiment. They often make babies will talk for very long periods of
the same consonant sound with a vague time using phonemes of
vowel sound in-between to create a string of their own language and intonation
syllables such as "bababababa" or patterns to create nonsense
"mamamama". This is babbling. speech. This is jargoning.…read more

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Phonological Development: Vowels
Vowels are easy to produce but sorting the differences
between them and pronouncing diphthongs correctly
takes time. In general plosive consonants and nasals
are acquired relatively early but fricatives and
affricates some later. Combing consonants is very
difficult and monosyllabic words are easier than
polysyllabic. To make language easier children use
different techniques to simplify difficult phonology.…read more

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Vowel Harmony Making all the vowels in a word the
same
e.g. Mummy--> mama
Consonant Harmony Making all the consonants the same or
alike
e.g. cupboard--> bubbed or doggy-->
doddy
Cluster Reduction Where 2 or more consonants are next to
each other, remove one of them
e.g. sleep--> seep or biscuit--> bikkit
Substitution Of difficult sounds for easier ones (often
fricative or affricate)
e.g. jump--> dump or that--> dat
Unstressed syllable deletion Where a syllable is deleted
e.g. banana--> nana
Final consonant deletion Deleting the last consonant
e.g. cat--> ca' or dog--> do'
Reduplication Of the same syllable instead of 2 different
ones
e.g. daddy--> dada
Diminutive forms Adding a vowel, usually `y' to avoid
final consonant…read more

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Lexical Development
Receptive Vocabulary--these are the words that a
child can understand, which may be measured by
giving physical or visual tasks to test their
comprehension.
Productive Vocabulary--these are the words a
child can actually say.…read more

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