Guide to A2 English exam AQA B

FOLLOW THIS STRUCTURE IN YOUR ESSAYS AND YOU WILL GET A GR8 MARK!!!

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CHILD LANGUAGE AQUISITION
Stages of development
o Telegraphic ( questions, negatives, pronouns, determiners, deixis)
o Post-telegraphic (longer sentences, conjunctions, modification)
Morphological development (morphemes)
o ing, plural, past tense, third person irregular(has),possession
o virtuous errors, overgeneralisations , the verb to be (I am, you were, I have been)
Pragmatics = Functions of Language
o Halliday ( Instrumental ,Regulatory, interactional, personal, representational, imaginative, heuristic)
o Dore (labelling, repeating, answering, requesting, calling, greeting, protesting, practicing)
o Language and power
o Face threatening acts/ phatic speech acts (understands turn taking)
Context
o Adult present?, power, assuming adult role, where is the child at the time?
o Who is talking to who?, Does it affect the content of the conversation?
CDS
o Higher pitch, Recasting, pauses, turn taking cues, tag questions, encouraging politeness
Theories
o Skinner ( the imitation theory),Chomsky ( innateness theory), Piaget ( cognitive theory)
o Language interaction, Bruner -Vygotsky (private speech, zone of proximal development)
o Language and play , Vygotsky , Catherine Harvey (children adopt roles and identities)
LANGUAGE CHANGE
Contextual level
o Who is speaking/ listening?, implied writer/reader, How does it affect what is written?
Graphological level
o Images, typeface, layout , effects?
Lexical level
o Words and phrases ( Archaisms, back formation,, broadening/narrowing, blended words, pejoration,
amelioration, affixations)
Semantic level
o Connotations of words, formality, what are the reasons for this?
Grammatical level
o Particular structures, imperatives, rhetorical devices, syntax
o Prescriptive ( Swift, Atchison) vs descriptive attitudes?
Phonological level
o Orthography/spelling/ Sound patterning?
o Punctuation differences
Discourse level
o Are the whole texts working in a particular way? Who is the implied audience? What is the purpose?
Social and technological change
o What developments can be seen through the language?
o Language and power/gender (gender specific/neutral)
o Standardisation (punctuation)
Attitudes towards language?
o How do the texts demonstrate change in society?
o Ideological positions have changed
o How are people represented (gender)

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