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Proletarian Traditionalists
· In 1966 David Lockwood identified what
he called proletarian traditionalism.
· Essentially he observed that the UK
working class have a different culture to
the middle class.…read more

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Working and Middle Class Culture
Proletarian Culture Middle Class culture
Collectivist, class loyalty built on union Individualistic, buys into meritocracy,
membership seeks self advancement
Life Fatalism Purposive
Time orientation Present Future
Gratification Immediate Deferred
View of `class' Power model `them and us' Prestige model ­ status hierarchy
Leisure/conjugal roles Leisure Spent with workmates/segregated Joint conjugal roles ­ division between
conjugal roles work and leisure less clear
Work Instrumental attitude ­ work a means to Emphasis on job satisfaction ­ positive
an end - money identification with role…read more

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Karl Marx
· Marx predicted that the working class would
grow, become homogenous (the same
throughout), and then class conscious leading to
· Intermediate classes e.g. small shopkeepers,
small business owners, small landowners would
get sucked into the proletariat and the proletariat
would get treated at the same low level. Skill
divisions and therefore pay advantages would
disappear with mechanisation.
· Modern sociologists have disputed that these
processes have happened…read more

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1. Embourgeoisement ­ associated with Zweig (New Right)
­ working class getting more affluent (wealthy) and
adopting middle class values and culture
2. Affluent Worker thesis ­ associated with Weberians
Goldthorpe and Lockwood ­ identified a new `privatised
working class' ­ a change in values from proletarian
traditionalism but not bourgeois values
3. Deskilling Thesis ­ Harry Braverman found evidence to
support Marx's idea of an homogenising working class ­
technological change leads to deskilling and loss of
control of labour process
Research each one of these theories and
evidence/arguments for and against each one…read more


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