Internal Factors that Effect Achievement

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  • Internal Factors that Effect Achievement
    • Self-fulfilling prophecy
      • 1. Teacher labels pupil.   2. Teacher treats pupil accordingly.   3. Pupils internalise the teachers expectations.
      • Teachers' expectations
        • Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968)
          • Children improved if they were randomly identified as "spurters"
          • Interactionist principle.
            • What people believe will have real effects.
    • Streaming
      • Separating pupils into different ability groups.
        • Self- fulfilling prophecy is likely to occur when streaming.
      • A-to-C economy
        • Gillborn and Youdell (2001) stereotype notions of ability to stream.
          • Denies working class pupils knowledge and opportunity.
        • Focussing time and effort on those likely to get high GCSE's.
      • Educational triage
        • 1. Those who pass            2. borderline C/D pupils   3. hopeless cases.
          • Working class labelled as hopeless
    • Pupil subcultures
      • Differentiation - Teachers categorising pupils.
        • Polarisation - pupils respond to streaming by moving towards one of two opposite poles.
      • Pro-school
        • Pupils in high streams, mostly middle class.
          • Gain status through academic success.
      • Anti-school
        • Low streams, mostly working class., low self esteem.
        • Gaining status ammong peers.
        • Lacey; being in an anti-school subculture creates a self-fulfilling prophecy.
    • Pupils' class identities and the school
      • Habitus
        • Dispositions of thinking, acting and being in a social class.
          • Middle class habitus is favoured by the school as it is superior.
      • Symbolic capital and violence
        • By defining working class as inferior this symbolic violence reproduces class structures.
        • Working class pupils felt they had to change to be successful in education.
          • Withholding symbolic capital.
      • Nike identities
        • Finding self-worth, status and value by heavily investing in branded clothing.
          • Archer et al- Nike identities cause working class marginalisation.
    • Labelling
      • Attaching a meaning to someone
      • Becker (1971) teachers judged pupils on how closely they fit the image of an ideal student.
        • Work, conduct and appearance are key factors in how pupils are judged.
      • Working class stidents considered furthest from "ideal", middle class upils considered closest.
      • Secondary schools
        • Dunne and Gazeley (2008) schools produce working class underachievers because of the labels.
          • Underachievement is normalised in working class pupils.
        • Labelling depended on how teaches view the role of pupils home background.
          • ie. working class parents uninterested, middle class parents interested in child's education.
      • Primary schools
        • Rist (1970) teachers label pupils using knowledge of background and appearance.
          • Those labelled fast learning tended to be middle class and neat and clean.


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