Cultural deficit theories argue that working class families place great emphasis on immediate gratification, where they are rewarded straight away rather than waiting. For example, they may start to do part time work as soon as possible rather than going to university and being rewarded later. Whereas, middle class families place more emphasis on delayed gratification and continuing study post-16 and attending university. Some working class pupils may experience a culture clash between the values of home and school. Sugarman argues that working class culture is fatalistic, parents pass on to their children that little can be done to change their low status. Therefore, working class children don’t see the aim in working hard at school if it will have no impact on their lives.