CCEA Biology: Revision Notes

Revision Notes coverying active transport, Animal and plant cells, diffusion, Enzymes, digestion, how enzymes work, osmosis, photosynthesis, plants, Specialised cells and Respiration

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  • Created by: Stephen
  • Created on: 24-09-11 21:07
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Biology
Seven Characteristics of life:
Movement
Reproduction
Sensitivity
Growth
Respiration (takes place in Mitochondria)
Excretion
Nutrition
Cells:
Animal cell
Plant cell

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Organ systems Function Main Organs
Skeletal Support, movement and Ribs, backbone
protection
Excretory Removal of toxic waste from Liver, kidneys and bladder
Kidneys
Reproductive Production of gamete and Testes and ovaries
fertilization
Respiratory Gas exchange, taking in oxygen Trachea, bronchi and lungs
and getting rid of Carbon dioxide
Circulatory Transport materials and heat Heat, and blood vessels
around the body.…read more

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Cell Adaption Function
Sperm Tail Allows it to swim to egg
Root hair Large surface area Draw in water from soil
Ciliated epithelial Little hairs (cilia) Traps mucus, dust and microbes…read more

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A specimen should be viewed under low power before changing to a higher magnification to prevent lenses
being damaged and to get an overall image.
Organs
An organ is a structure made up of several types of tissues that work together to carry out a particular
function. In animal the heart is an organ that contains blood tissue and muscle tissue.
In plants the main organs are:
1.…read more

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Food tests
Test for Simple Sugar
Add 2cm3 of Benedicts Solution and heat carefully in water bath.
Color change: Blue/green to orange/red
Test for starch
Add iodine to the solution in the test tube.
Color change: Yellow/red to blue/black
Test for protein
Add Biurets solution to the solution
Color change: Blue to purple
Photosynthesis
All living organisms need energy to survive. Energy comes from food.…read more

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The leaf (cross section)
In most plants photosynthesis takes place in the leaf. The way in which leaves are arranged on a plant
ensures that each leaf can absorb as much light as possible. Light absorption in a leaf is maximized by:
Short distance from top to bottom
Large surface area
This transparent cuticle that reduces water loss by evaporation, but does not prevent light entering
the leaf
The presence of chloroplasts rich in the pigment chlorophyll that absorbs light.…read more

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Regular structure of palisade layer, which ensures many cells rich in chloroplasts are packed
together near the upper surface of the leaf.
Gas exchange is maximized by:
Intercellular air spaces in spongy mesophyll which allow carbon dioxide to enter and oxygen to
leave the photosynthesizing cells which are mainly concentrated in palisade layer.
Carbon dioxide and oxygen can enter and leave the leaf through the stomata. Stomata are small
pores that occur between cells on the bottom surface of leaves.…read more

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Vitamin A (Fat soluble)
Sources:
Green vegetables
Red and orange fruit and veg. especially
Carrots
Tomatoes
Apricots
Vitamin A is important in the diet for,
Growth
Night vision
Healthy skin
Healthy tissues e.g. linings in the mouth
Deficiencies which may arise from an inadequate intake of Vitamin A:-
Night blindness
Liver damage
Retarded growth
These deficiencies are not very likely as Vitamin A is stored in the body.
Vitamin C (Water Soluble)
Vitamin C has several functions in the body.…read more

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Tiredness
Wounds healing slowly
Dry skin and hair
Muscle and joint pain
Nausea
Iron helps the formation of haemoglobin in red blood cells, which carries oxygen around the body.
Water
Functions of water:
Water is a major constituent of all body fluids
Helps skin
It assists the removal of waste products from (toxins) the body.…read more

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Tooth decay
Brought about when acids produced by bacteria in mouth attack enamel of teeth. The bacteria use sugar
from foods for respiration and produce acid. If the acid eats away at the enamel the person starts to feel
pain as the process of decay spreads into the dentine and pulp cavity where nerves are.
Past paper question
Explain how sugary foods can lead to tooth decay?
Bacteria feed on sugar and produce an acid.…read more

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