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Seven Characteristics of life:

Respiration (takes place in Mitochondria)


Animal cell

Plant cell

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Organ systems Function Main Organs
Skeletal Support, movement and Ribs, backbone
Excretory Removal of toxic waste from Liver, kidneys and bladder
Reproductive Production of gamete and Testes and ovaries
Respiratory Gas exchange, taking in oxygen Trachea, bronchi and lungs
and getting rid of Carbon dioxide
Circulatory Transport…

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Cell Adaption Function
Sperm Tail Allows it to swim to egg
Root hair Large surface area Draw in water from soil
Ciliated epithelial Little hairs (cilia) Traps mucus, dust and microbes

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A specimen should be viewed under low power before changing to a higher magnification to prevent lenses
being damaged and to get an overall image.


An organ is a structure made up of several types of tissues that work together to carry out a particular
function. In animal the…

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Food tests

Test for Simple Sugar

Add 2cm3 of Benedicts Solution and heat carefully in water bath.

Color change: Blue/green to orange/red

Test for starch

Add iodine to the solution in the test tube.

Color change: Yellow/red to blue/black

Test for protein

Add Biurets solution to the solution

Color change:…

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The leaf (cross section)

In most plants photosynthesis takes place in the leaf. The way in which leaves are arranged on a plant
ensures that each leaf can absorb as much light as possible. Light absorption in a leaf is maximized by:

Short distance from top to bottom
Large surface…

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Regular structure of palisade layer, which ensures many cells rich in chloroplasts are packed
together near the upper surface of the leaf.

Gas exchange is maximized by:

Intercellular air spaces in spongy mesophyll which allow carbon dioxide to enter and oxygen to
leave the photosynthesizing cells which are mainly concentrated…

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Vitamin A (Fat soluble)


Green vegetables
Red and orange fruit and veg. especially

Vitamin A is important in the diet for,

Night vision
Healthy skin
Healthy tissues e.g. linings in the mouth

Deficiencies which may arise from an inadequate intake of Vitamin A:-

Night blindness…

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Wounds healing slowly
Dry skin and hair
Muscle and joint pain

Iron helps the formation of haemoglobin in red blood cells, which carries oxygen around the body.


Functions of water:

Water is a major constituent of all body fluids
Helps skin
It assists the removal of waste…

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Tooth decay

Brought about when acids produced by bacteria in mouth attack enamel of teeth. The bacteria use sugar
from foods for respiration and produce acid. If the acid eats away at the enamel the person starts to feel
pain as the process of decay spreads into the dentine and…


Brooke Heneghan


so helpful thank you!!!

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