CCEA Biology: Revision Notes

Revision Notes coverying active transport, Animal and plant cells, diffusion, Enzymes, digestion, how enzymes work, osmosis, photosynthesis, plants, Specialised cells and Respiration

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Stephen
  • Created on: 24-09-11 21:07
Preview of CCEA Biology: Revision Notes

First 34 words of the document:

Seven Characteristics of life:
Respiration (takes place in Mitochondria)
Animal cell
Plant cell

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Organ systems Function Main Organs
Skeletal Support, movement and Ribs, backbone
Excretory Removal of toxic waste from Liver, kidneys and bladder
Reproductive Production of gamete and Testes and ovaries
Respiratory Gas exchange, taking in oxygen Trachea, bronchi and lungs
and getting rid of Carbon dioxide
Circulatory Transport materials and heat Heat, and blood vessels
around the body.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Cell Adaption Function
Sperm Tail Allows it to swim to egg
Root hair Large surface area Draw in water from soil
Ciliated epithelial Little hairs (cilia) Traps mucus, dust and microbes…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

A specimen should be viewed under low power before changing to a higher magnification to prevent lenses
being damaged and to get an overall image.
An organ is a structure made up of several types of tissues that work together to carry out a particular
function. In animal the heart is an organ that contains blood tissue and muscle tissue.
In plants the main organs are:
1.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Food tests
Test for Simple Sugar
Add 2cm3 of Benedicts Solution and heat carefully in water bath.
Color change: Blue/green to orange/red
Test for starch
Add iodine to the solution in the test tube.
Color change: Yellow/red to blue/black
Test for protein
Add Biurets solution to the solution
Color change: Blue to purple
All living organisms need energy to survive. Energy comes from food.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

The leaf (cross section)
In most plants photosynthesis takes place in the leaf. The way in which leaves are arranged on a plant
ensures that each leaf can absorb as much light as possible. Light absorption in a leaf is maximized by:
Short distance from top to bottom
Large surface area
This transparent cuticle that reduces water loss by evaporation, but does not prevent light entering
the leaf
The presence of chloroplasts rich in the pigment chlorophyll that absorbs light.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

Regular structure of palisade layer, which ensures many cells rich in chloroplasts are packed
together near the upper surface of the leaf.
Gas exchange is maximized by:
Intercellular air spaces in spongy mesophyll which allow carbon dioxide to enter and oxygen to
leave the photosynthesizing cells which are mainly concentrated in palisade layer.
Carbon dioxide and oxygen can enter and leave the leaf through the stomata. Stomata are small
pores that occur between cells on the bottom surface of leaves.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

Vitamin A (Fat soluble)
Green vegetables
Red and orange fruit and veg. especially
Vitamin A is important in the diet for,
Night vision
Healthy skin
Healthy tissues e.g. linings in the mouth
Deficiencies which may arise from an inadequate intake of Vitamin A:-
Night blindness
Liver damage
Retarded growth
These deficiencies are not very likely as Vitamin A is stored in the body.
Vitamin C (Water Soluble)
Vitamin C has several functions in the body.…read more

Page 9

Preview of page 9

Here's a taster:

Wounds healing slowly
Dry skin and hair
Muscle and joint pain
Iron helps the formation of haemoglobin in red blood cells, which carries oxygen around the body.
Functions of water:
Water is a major constituent of all body fluids
Helps skin
It assists the removal of waste products from (toxins) the body.…read more

Page 10

Preview of page 10

Here's a taster:

Tooth decay
Brought about when acids produced by bacteria in mouth attack enamel of teeth. The bacteria use sugar
from foods for respiration and produce acid. If the acid eats away at the enamel the person starts to feel
pain as the process of decay spreads into the dentine and pulp cavity where nerves are.
Past paper question
Explain how sugary foods can lead to tooth decay?
Bacteria feed on sugar and produce an acid.…read more


No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all resources »