Slides in this set
One approach to deal with mental disorders is the Cognitive therapy and the other
is Behavioural therapy.
Cognitive approach is based on the belief that the key influence on
behaviour is how an individual thinks about a situation. Therefore
cognitive approach aims to change unwanted maladaptive thoughts
Behavioural therapy aims to reverse the learning process and
produce a set of more desirable behaviours.
The cognitive behavioural approach links the two and involves
cognitive techniques, such as challenging negative thoughts and
behavioural techniques such as rewarding desirable behaviours.…read more
Stress Inoculation Training
· Meichenbaum believed that although we cannot change
the causes of stress in our life (e.g. Stressful job is a stressful
job) we can change the way we think about theses stressors.
· Negative thinking like ` I failed to hit the deadline I'm
hopeless' may lead to anxiety and depression.
· Positive thinking leads to more positive attitudes and
feelings which help reduces stress response and help us cope
· His therapy was called Stress Inoculation Training. He
believed that a person should form a form of coping before
the problem arises.…read more
Three main processes
1. Conceptualisation phase The client is educated about the nature and
impact of stress. For example, the client is taught to view perceived stress
threats as problems to be solved. This enables them to think differently
about the problem.
2. Skills acquisition phase - Coping skills are taught and practised in the
clinic and then gradually in real life. Skills include; positive thinking,
relaxation, social skills, time management.. `RELAX your in control' coping
self statements are taught.
The cognitive techniques encourage the client to think differently and
behavioural involves learning new more adaptive behaviours.
3. Application Phase- clients are given opportunities to apply the newly
learned coping skills in different situations which become increasingly
stressful. Various techniques are used such as imagery (imagining to deal
with the stress) modelling (watching someone else cope with stress then
imitating it ) and role playing.…read more
Strengths of S.I.T
Meichenbaum compared SIT with another treatment
called systematic desensitisation and found that
although both helped reduced the snake phobia.
SIT helped clients with a non treated phobia. This
shows it can inoculate against future stressful
situations as well as help in coping with current
Sheehy and Horan examined effect of SIT on the
anxiety, stress and academic performance on Law
students. P's received 4 weekly sessions lasting
90mins. They found that p's who received SIT
displayed lower levels of anxiety and stress over time.…read more
Weaknesses of SIT
· SIT requires a lot of time, effort, motivation and
money. Its is effective because it involves learning and
practising many new skills, but its complexity makes it
lengthy therapy which would only suit a limited range
of determined individuals.
· It is unnecessarily complex. It may be that the
effectiveness of SIT is due to certain elements of
training rather than all of it.
·This means that a range of activities may be reduced
without losing much of its effectiveness, e.g. it might
be equally effective to just learn to talk more positively
and relax more.…read more
Kobasa identified a personality type that was
especially resistant to stress- The hardy
She believed that people could be trained in
hardiness, to help them manage stress better.
Maddi found that the aim of the training was
to increase self confidence and sense of control
so that individuals can handle and navigate