The Natural Environment Geography Edexcel revision cards

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St Ivo School Geography Department - GCSE REVISION
Define the following key terms... 1. Epicentre - this is the point on the surface directly above
the focus of an earthquake - the most damage often occur
1. Epicentre here
2. Focus 2. Focus - this is the point underground where the earthquake
starts - it is here where the greatest release of energy occurs
3. Magnitude
Fold along here
3. Magnitude - the strength of an earthquake, reflecting the
amount of energy released.
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St Ivo School Geography Department - GCSE REVISION Ocean-Continental Plate Boundary
an oceanic and continental plate move towards each other due
What type of boundary is shown in the diagram
to convection currents
below? - Describe what happens here. denser oceanic crust is subducted forming a deep sea trench
heat from the mantle & friction between the plates causes the
oceanic plate to be destroyed
as the plate melts, magma forms and due to the pressure and
Fold along here the heat is forced to rise to the surface
magma erupts at the surface as lava, forming a volcano
fold mountains (e.g. Andes) are created due to the impact of
Yr 11 - Tectonics www.geobytesgcse.wordpress.com collision (earthquakes may occur) www.geobytesgcse.wordpress.com
St Ivo School Geography Department - GCSE REVISION
1. Oceanic-Oceanic (Convergence) - Philippine Plate moving west &
Give a named example of:
subducting under the Eurasian plate (forms the Ryuku Islands - nr
Japan)
1. An oceanic-oceanic convergent boundary 2. Continental-Continental (Convergence) Indian Plate converging with
2. A continental-continental boundary the Eurasian plate - forms the Himalayas
3. Divergent Boundary - North American Plate moving away from the
3. A divergent plate boundary Eurasian Plate (forms Mid-Atlantic Ridge)
Fold along here
3. A conservative plate boundary 4. Conservative Boundary - North American and Pacific Plate move
past each other at the San Andreas Fault (California)
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St Ivo School Geography Department - GCSE REVISION
Oceanic crust is 5-10km thick (Continental 25-100km)
Give three differences between oceanic and Oceanic crust is denser than continental crust
continental crust.
Oceanic crust is constantly renewed and destroyed
(continental is permanent and cannot be destroyed.
Fold along here
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St Ivo School Geography Department - GCSE REVISION
Name the features at A, B, C and D A - Subduction Zone
B - Oceanic Trench
C - Island Arc
Fold along here
D - Volcano
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St Ivo School Geography Department - GCSE REVISION Points should include:
Both earthquakes & volcanoes occur in long narrow bands - often
following the edge of continents (e.g. W Coast of S America)
Describe the global distribution of earthquakes and Largest band of volcanoes are found along the Pacific Ring of Fire
(around the Pacific Ocean)
volcanoes. Earthquakes and Volcanoes are also found together in bands in the
middle of Oceans (e.g.…read more

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St Ivo School Geography Department - GCSE REVISION
- two plates move away from each other due to convection currents
- as the plate move apart, pressure causes the crustal rocks to
fracture and a gap and ridge (mid-oceanic ridge) form
- magma rises to fill the gap, volcanoes form and new crust is created
Explain the processes at a divergent plate boundary
- as magma builds up, volcanic islands form above the surface of the
ocean (e.g.…read more

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St Ivo School Geography Department - GCSE REVISION
1. Precious Minerals
2. Fertile Soils
State 6 reasons why people continue to live in volcanic 3. Perceived Risk seen as worth it
areas. 4. Poverty
5. Geothermal Energy
Fold along here
6. Tourism
also beliefs (e.g. Merapi - believed to be sacred)
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St Ivo School Geography Department - GCSE REVISION Could Include:
1.…read more

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St Ivo School Geography Department - GCSE REVISION Could include:
Building waste major problem - 50% of buildings in Port-au-Prince and
nearby towns collapsed - including 500 schools, and buildings such as
Presidents Palace and Port-au-Prince cathedral
Including specific facts and figures give five effects of
problem of massive quantities of rubble to dispose of
the Haiti quake on the environment.…read more

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St Ivo School Geography Department - GCSE REVISION Examples Include:
Tiltmeters / GPS technology - on side of volcanoes to detect change
in shape which may indicate magma rise (e.g. Mount St Helens -
Describe and explain four techniques for monitoring 1980)
volcanoes. Gas Sampling - monitor levels of Sulphur dioxide which increase with
volcanic activity
Geothermal Monitoring - satellites used to detect changes in heat
Fold along here
levels associated with magma rising.…read more

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St Ivo School Geography Department - GCSE REVISION Could include:
Foundations sunk deep into bedrock (avoid clay therefore reduce risk
of liquefaction)
Describe examples of what can be done to help limit Rubber Shock-absorbers between foundations / building to absorb
energy waves
the damage caused by earthquakes to buildings.…read more

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St Ivo School Geography Department - GCSE REVISION
1. Oceanic Trench
Name the features found at an oceanic-oceanic 2. Subduction Zone
convergence zone.
3. Volcanic Islands
Fold along here
4. Island arc
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St Ivo School Geography Department - GCSE REVISION
1. Oceanic Trench
Name the features found at an oceanic-continental 2. Subduction Zone
convergence boundary.
3. Fold Mountains
Fold along here
4. Volcanoes
Yr 11 - Tectonics www.geobytesgcse.wordpress.com www.geobytesgcse.wordpress.…read more

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