Prokaryotic And Eukaryotic Cells

Simple revision cards outlining the different features of prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

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  • Created by: Emily
  • Created on: 18-01-11 16:05

Size Of Cell

Prokaryotes

  • Typically about 0.2-20 micrometres in diameter

Eukaryotes

  • Typically 10-100 micrometres in diameter
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Nucleus

Prokaryotes

  • There is no nuclear membrane or nucleoli. 
  • There is a nucleoid, an irregularly-shaped region with nuclear material, and where the genetic material is localised

Eukaryotes

  • There is a true nucleus, consisting of a nuclear membrane and nucleoli
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Membrane-Enclosed Organelles

Prokaryotes

  • Absent

Eukaryotes

  • Present
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Flagella

Prokaryotes

  • The flagella of prokaryotes consist of two building blocks

Eukaryotes

  • The flagella of eukaryotes are complex, consisting of multiple microtubules 
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Glycolux

Prokaryotes

  •  This is present as a capsule, or slime layer

Eukaryotes

  •  This is present in some cells that lack a cell wall
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Cell Wall

Prokaryotes

  • A cell wall is usually present
  • The cell wall is chemically complex; a typical bacterial wall includes peptidoglycan

Eukaryotes

  • When a cell wall is present, it is chemically simple 

 

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Plasma Membrane

Prokaryotes

  • Contains no carbohydrates, and a general lack of sterols

Eukaryotes

  •  Sterols and carbohydrates that serve as receptors are present 
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Cytoplasm

Prokaryotes

  • No cytoskeleton or cytoplasmic streaming

Eukaryotes

  • Has a cytoskleton and cytoplasmic streaming 

 

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Ribosomes

Prokaryotes

  • Smaller (70S)

Eukaryotes

  • Larger in size (80S)
  • Smaller in organelles (70S) 

 

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Chromosome (DNA)

Prokaryotes

  • Single circular chromosome
  • Lacks histones

Eukaryotes

  • Multiple linear chromosomes with histones 

 

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Sexual Reproduction

Prokaryotes

  • No meiosis
  • Only DNA fragments are transferred (conjugation)

Eukaryotes

  • Involves meiosis 

 

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