Slides in this set
Latin poets were expected to include references to
other writers this one is to Livy's story of Hannibal Caesar is powerful; he has just
crossing the Alps and the obstacles he encountered. conquered the Alps and is
Lucan is also exaggerating harsh conditions. about to take on Rome.
As far as Caesar
Assonance of c links it together is concerned, war
iam gelidas Caesar cursu superaverat Alpes
ingentisque animo motus bellumque futurum
ceperat. ut ventum est parvi Rubiconis ad undas,
Means `movements'. It suggests that his
`Huge' contrasts with actions will have earth-shattering effects.
Caesar is going to capture Rome this Ironic: great Caesar conquering `little' Rubicon.
word suggests the meaning of his However, Caesar disregards the importance of this
plans. river, which is one of the most important in Italy
Also, `patriae' has been placed
All this description reinforces the
emphatically at the centre of the line.
huge image of Rome and her
between obvious Juxtaposition of `leader' and
opposites e.g. `homeland' refers to Caesar's `Trembling': very strong word,
good/bad ambition. creates anxiety in the reader.
ingens uisa duci patriae trepidantis imago
clara per obscuram vultu maetissima noctem
turrigero canos effundens uertice crines
Turrets are a symbol of a city Use of superlative adjective indicates
under siege. how sad she is.
The fact that her hair has gone white
emphasizes how worried she is.…read more
When in mourning, a Roman custom for women
was for them to tear their clothes and hair, which is
why her shoulders are bare and her hair is torn.
Repetition and short sentences
broken up into short clauses make
Her hair is torn - she has been
her speech punchy.
caesarie lacera nudisque adstare lacertis
et gemitu permixta loqui: `quo tenditis ultra?
quo fertis mea signa, viri? si iure venitis,
Citizens si cives, huc usque licet.' tum perculit
Deliberate use of the word `lawfully';
A strong verb, it
Caesar and his men cannot cross with
weapons without becoming `an enemy of
powerfully he has been
The vision is speaking to all the soldier but only Caesar is said to be
struck with fear so is it just him who can see it or is it because he is the
leader and the one responsible for their illegal actions, or even both?…read more
Word order emphasizes the nouns as
the two words should be the other way
membra ducis, riguere comae gressumque coercens
languor in extrema tenuit uestigia ripa.
Placed at the beginning for This shows how desperate Rome is
emphasis. as it is the very edge and her last
chance to stop him.…read more
Lucan/Caesar is showing his knowledge
of Roman history, right to the start, at
This was a rock on the Capitoline hill named
after a Roman maiden called Tarpeia who
`Soon' he is frightened and betrayed Rome to the enemy (the Sabines).
affected Traitors like her got thrown off this rock.
mox ait `o magnae qui moenia prospicis urbis
Tarpeia de rupe Tonans Phrygiique penates
gentis Iuleae et rapti secreta Quirini
Reference to the Julius clan who The household gods are from Phrygia, which
said that they were descendants was then Troy. This is another referral to the
of Julius, the son of Aeneas (who story of Aeneas saving the household gods in
was in turn the son of Venus) the destroyed city of Troy and taking them to
Quirini refers to Romulus, one of the founders
of Rome, who is said to have been carried off.…read more