Caesar Crosses the Rubicon - Lucan

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  • Caesar Crosses the Rubicon - Lucan
    • in 49BC, the Roman Senate demanded that Julius Caesar give up his command and his army, but he refused to do so unless Pompey do the same.
      • when Pompey and the senate  decided against Caesar's request, he decided to enter Italy from his province, Gaul, with his army. This was illegal.
    • use of word "superaverat" to mean cross/climb, as opposed to 'overcome'
    • 'future war in his mind' i.e the civil war between Caesar and Pompey
    • the river Rubicon was the boundary of Italy in Roman times - crossing it with an army would mean Caesar had broken the law
    • Rome is personified as  a woman
      • large apparition of a woman
    • juxtaposition of "clara" and "per obscuram"
    • traditional signs of grief when describing the apparition of Rome
      • bare arms, loose hair, etc
    • direct use of speech between 'Rome' and Caesar
      • use of rhetorical questions from 'Rome'
    • "tuus" - Caesar says he belongs to Rome
    • repetition of "ille" refers to Caesar's enemies
    • use of irony when Caesar says he is 'leaving violated laws', but is actually breaking the law
    • more personification, this time of "Fortuna"


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