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C4 ­ Chemical Patterns
Atoms
The nucleus contains positively charged protons and an equal
amount of neutrons which have no charge. The number of
protons decides what element it is. The nucleus provides the
weight of the atom. Negatively charged electrons orbit the
nucleus is shells and give the atom…

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These can be used to identify a metal in a compound.
We see colours because when heated the electrons release energy as light these can be
recorded in a spectrum. Different element emit different wave lengths, therefore it can be
used to identify elements. This technique is called spectroscopy.

The…

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Fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine and astatine all have seven electrons in their outer shell
making them very reactive; because of having 7 electrons they make diatomic molecules
(pairs of atoms) to fill their outer shell. They become less reactive as you go down as the
outer shell is further away…

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Atoms lose or gain an electron to have full shell and form charged particles, ions. It is
most common in the group 1 and group 7 elements.

The charges in an ionic compound should be neutral, ions can have different changes
gaining or losing more than one electron.

By knowing…

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