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Chemistry C2 Revision Notes

C2.1.1 Structure and bonding

a) Compounds are substances in which atoms of two or more elements
are chemically combined.

b) Chemical bonding involves either transferring or sharing electrons
in the highest occupied energy levels (shells) of atoms in order to
achieve the electronic structure of a…

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Chemistry C2 Revision Notes

C2.2.1 Molecules

a) Substances that consist of simple molecules are gases, liquids or
solids that have relatively low melting points and boiling points.

b) Substances that consist of simple molecules have only weak
forces between the molecules (intermolecular forces). It is these
intermolecular forces that are…

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Chemistry C2 Revision Notes

d) In graphite, one electron from each carbon atom is delocalised.
These delocalised electrons allow graphite to conduct heat and

e) Carbon can also form fullerenes with different numbers of
carbon atoms. Fullerenes can be used for drug delivery into the
body, in lubricants, as…

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Chemistry C2 Revision Notes

C2.2.6 Nanoscience

a) Nanoscience refers to structures that are 1­100 nm in size, of the
order of a few hundred atoms. Nanoparticles show different
properties to the same materials in bulk and have a high surface
area to volume ratio, which may lead to the development…

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Chemistry C2 Revision Notes

g) The relative formula mass of a substance, in grams, is known as one
mole of that substance.
C2.3.2 Analysing substances

a) Elements and compounds can be detected and identified using
instrumental methods. Instrumental methods are accurate, sensitive
and rapid and are particularly useful when the…

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Chemistry C2 Revision Notes

The reaction may not go to completion because it is reversible

Some of the product may be lost when it is separated from the
reaction mixture

Some of the reactants may react in ways different from the
expected reaction.

e) The amount of a product obtained…

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Chemistry C2 Revision Notes

e) Increasing the concentration of reactants in solutions increases the
frequency of collisions and so increases the rate of reaction.

f) Increasing the surface area of solid reactants increases the
frequency of collisions and so increases the rate of reaction.

g) Catalysts change the rate of…

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Chemistry C2 Revision Notes

C2.6.1 Making salts

a) The state symbols in equations are (s), ( l ) , (g) and (aq).

b) Soluble salts can be made from acids by reacting them with:

Metals ­ not all metals are suitable; some are too reactive and
others are not reactive…

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Chemistry C2 Revision Notes

d) Hydrogen ions, H+(aq), make solutions acidic and hydroxide ions,
OH­(aq), make solutions alkaline. The pH scale is a measure of the
acidity or alkalinity of a solution.

e) In neutralisation reactions, hydrogen ions react with hydroxide ions
to produce water. This reaction can be represented…

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Chemistry C2 Revision Notes

h) Aluminium is manufactured by the electrolysis of a molten mixture
of aluminium oxide and cryolite.
Aluminium forms at the negative electrode and oxygen at the positive
electrode. The positive electrode is made of carbon, which reacts with
the oxygen to produce carbon dioxide.

i) The…


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