C2 Exhaustive Revision Notes

These are my exhaustive revision notes for Chemistry Unit 2 of the GCSE Additional Science / GCSE Chemistry syllabus for Edexcel.

I have used multiple textbooks as well as internet sources to compile these notes, and whilst I was compiling them, I actively kept the syllabus at hand, so hopefully there is nothing beyond these notes which is essential knowledge in order to answer any question on the exam paper (I would promise, but I know everyone's liable to human error!).

I hope that you may find these notes useful :)

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By the 1860s, 63 elements were known and chemists were eager to make a table organising the elements in a
helpful way.

In 1869, Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907) organised a table in order to help him discern which
order to study the elements in within the second volume of…

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thus so do their mass numbers). Atoms of the same element which have different numbers of neutrons are
called isotopes.

Isotopes of the same element have the same chemical properties because they have the same number of

Some periodic tables show the relative atomic mass of elements as opposed…

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In order to form the ionic compound of potassium sulphide, the potassium atom must lose one electron because
it has an electronic configuration of whilst the sulphur atom must gain two electrons because it has an
electronic configuration of 2.8.6. Two atoms of potassium are therefore needed to give…

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4. Electrical conduction . Ionic compounds conduct electricity only when molten or dissolved in an aqueous
solution because they have no delocalised electrons as solids the crystal lattice structure means that all
electrons are held firmly in place.

The electrical conduction properties of ionic compounds enable aluminium to be extracted…

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Barium Pale green
Calcium Brick red
Copper Blue/green

Carbonates will effervesce (fizz) if dilute hydrochloric acid is added to them. This gives off carbon dioxide,
which turns limewater milky if bubbled through it.

If dilute hydrochloric acid and a few drops of barium chloride…

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Most simple molecular covalent substances are i
nsolublewith some exceptions, such as sucrose.

As opposed to simple molecular covalent substances, some covalent substances form large networks of atoms .
These are known as giant molecular covalent substances and include diamond and graphite , both of which are
forms of pure…

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As the solvent then soaks up the chromatography paper, it carries the mixture upwards with it. Because
different components of the mixture will move at different rates, the mixture separates out along the
chromatography paper .

The chromatography paper , now known as the chromatograph ,shows the spots for the…

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2. Are strong and hard: the strength of the electrostatic attraction between their cations and delocalised
electronsgives metals this property.

3. Are malleable: the layers of cations can slide over each other but are still held together by their
electrostatic attraction with the delocalised electrons, so metals bend and stretch…

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Halogens attract outer shell electrons from elements which do not have a tight hold on them, such as alkali
metals. This produces ionic compounds because the halogens take electrons from the elements to form ions .
Halogens can reach a stable electronic configuration i
n this manner.

Yet the further…

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Chemical reactions which give out thermal energy to the surrounding environment are called exothermic
reactions. Most chemical reactions are exothermic reactions.

Combustion reactions , precipitation reactions, metal displacement reactions , neutralisation reactions and
explosions are exothermic reactions. For example, the c
ombustionin a cars engine releases thermal energy .




Great notes :)


brilliant :)


amazing, thanks


great revision cards really useful :)))))

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