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Chemistry C2 Revision
Atoms
Atoms consist of electrons surrounding a nucleus that contains protons and
neutrons
Electrons are arranged in energy levels or shells
There is a link between the position of an element in the periodic table and its
electronic structure


Particle Mass Charge Location

Proton 1 +1 Nucleus…

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Nanotechnology


Nanoparticles range in size from about 100nm down to about 1nm
They are smaller than normal particles
They have a very large surface area compared to their surface area so they can react
quickly
Being able to react quickly make them useful as a catalyst to speed up reactions…

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4. USE RATIO, A/M , Moles and Mass Mass

Percentage Yield

(Actual Yield ÷ Theoretical Yield) x 100

Atom Economy

(M of useful products ÷ M of total products) x 100



Rates of Reactions
The rate of a reaction can be measured by the rate at which a reactant is…

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Catalysts increase the rate of reaction without being used up, they do this by
lowering the activation energy and more collisions are successful increasing the rate
of reaction. Catalyst are important in industry because they reduce costs

Reversible Reactions
Exothermic reactions give out heat
Endothermic reactions take in heat
Some…

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Haber Process (low temperature and high pressure)
Nitrogen + Hydrogen Ammonia

N2(g)+ 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)

The forward reaction which makes ammonia for fertilisers is exothermic, therefore
the yield ammonia is better at lower temperatures
The reaction actually runs faster at higher temperature, therefore a compromise is
chosen, so that there is…

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Electrolysis
Electrolysis is the process by which ionic substances are broken down into simpler
substances using electricity
During electrolysis, metals and gases may form at the electrodes
The negative electrode is called the cathode (because c's are negative)
The positive electrode is called the anode (because a's are positive)
Positive…

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H(aq) + OH (aq) HO(l)

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