C2 Total Revision

Everything covered in the aqa C2 exam

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Chemistry C2 Revision
Atoms consist of electrons surrounding a nucleus that contains protons and
Electrons are arranged in energy levels or shells
There is a link between the position of an element in the periodic table and its
electronic structure
Particle Mass Charge Location
Proton 1 +1 Nucleus
Neutron 1 0 Nucleus
Electron 1/2000 -1 Orbiting Nucleus
The mass number of an atom in the top number (the big number)
The atomic number is the bottom number
Elements consist of one type of atom only
It is difficult to separate the two original elements out again after a reaction
Group 1 elements are metals
Group 7 elements are halogens
Group 0 elements are noble gases
Chemical Bonding
Ions are electrically charged particles formed when atoms lose or gain electrons
Metal atoms lose the electron or electrons from their outer shells to become
positively charged ions
Non-metal atoms gain an electron or electrons from another atom to become
negatively charged ions
A covalent bond is a strong bond between two non-metal atoms
It consists of a shared pair of electrons
A covalent bond can be represented by a venn diagram
Hydrogen and chlorine cam each form one covalent bond, oxygen two, nitrogen
three and carbon four bonds

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Nanoparticles range in size from about 100nm down to about 1nm
They are smaller than normal particles
They have a very large surface area compared to their surface area so they can react
Being able to react quickly make them useful as a catalyst to speed up reactions
They can be uses in self-cleaning ovens, windows and sunblock creams
They are used in sunblock because they don't appear white on the skin whilst still
blocking the harmful ultraviolet light
Nanoparticles also have different…read more

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USE RATIO, A/M , Moles and Mass Mass
Percentage Yield
(Actual Yield ÷ Theoretical Yield) x 100
Atom Economy
(M of useful products ÷ M of total products) x 100
Rates of Reactions
The rate of a reaction can be measured by the rate at which a reactant is used up, or
the rate at which a product is formed
Chemical reactions only occur if the reactant particles have enough energy
The rate of a reaction depends on these four things:
Concentration (pressure for…read more

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Catalysts increase the rate of reaction without being used up, they do this by
lowering the activation energy and more collisions are successful increasing the rate
of reaction.…read more

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Haber Process (low temperature and high pressure)
Nitrogen + Hydrogen Ammonia
N2(g)+ 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)
The forward reaction which makes ammonia for fertilisers is exothermic, therefore
the yield ammonia is better at lower temperatures
The reaction actually runs faster at higher temperature, therefore a compromise is
chosen, so that there is a reasonable rate of reaction but yet still keeping a large
yield of ammonia
The presence of the iron catalyst does not affect the point of equilibrium but it does
increase the rate of the…read more

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Electrolysis is the process by which ionic substances are broken down into simpler
substances using electricity
During electrolysis, metals and gases may form at the electrodes
The negative electrode is called the cathode (because c's are negative)
The positive electrode is called the anode (because a's are positive)
Positive metal or hydrogen ions are drawn to the cathode
Negative non-metallic ions are attracted to the anode
Electrons flow clockwise
Impurities are drawn to the electrodes but formulate at the bottom of the container
Acids,…read more

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H(aq) + OH (aq) HO(l)…read more


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