chemistry revision

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What metals make good catalysts?
Transition Metals
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What is thermal decomposition?
When a substance breaks down in to at least two other substances when heated
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What structure do metals have?
A crystal structure
3 of 70
What is precipitation?
When two solutions react and an insoluble solid forms in water
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Where do we get water from?
Surface and Ground water
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What does dry cleaning use to remove stains?
Solvents
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Describe a detergent molecule
Hydrophilic head, hydrophobic tail
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What are alternatives to CFC's?
Alkanes and HFCS
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What process is used in purifying water?
Filtration, Sedimentation and Chlorination
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What impurities can tap water contain?
Nitrate residues, lead compounds and pesticide residues
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What are the three particles found in an atom?
Nucleus, Protons and Neutrons
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What is "the mole"?
The name given to a certain number
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What is the equation for finding number of moles?
Number of moles = mass/mr
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What is concentration?
A measure of how crowded things are
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What is the formula for concentration?
concentration = # of moles/volume
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How do you dilute a concentrated solution?
Divide to get a number less than one, volume to dilute=ratioXfinal volume, volume of water = total volume - volume to dilute
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What are titrations used for?
To find out concentrations
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How can you collect gas?
Gas syringe, upturned measuring cylinder or burette
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What does the nucleus contain?
Protons and Neutrons
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What is a reversible reaction?
Where the products can react with each other and convert back to original chemicals
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If the position of equilibrium is left?
Lots of reactants but not as much products
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If the position of equilibrium is right?
Lots of products but not as much reactants
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What three things can change the position of equilibrium?
Temperature, pressure and concentration
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What happens if you try to change equilibrium?
It counteracts
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What is the contact process used for?
To make sulfuric acid
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What is the first stage to make sulfur dioxide?
sulfur + oxygen -> sulfur dioxide
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What's the second stage of the contact process?
oxidised sulfur dioxide + oxygen ↔ sulfur trioxide
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Third step in contact process?
sulfur trioxide + water -> sulfuric acid
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What do acids produce in water?
Protons
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What do strong acids do in water?
Ionise completely
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Which acids are better conductors?
Strong acids
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Which acids react faster?
Strong acids
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How to prepare insoluble salts?
Pick right reactants, precipitate, filter and dry
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What is a REDOX reaction?
When reduction and oxidation happen at the same time
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The rule for displacement reactions?
A more reactive metal will displace a less reactive metal from its compound
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Rusting of iron is what reaction?
REDOX
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Whats the equation for rust?
iron + oxygen + water -> hydrated iron (III) oxide
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What are metals combined with to prevent rust?
Other metals to make alloys
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How do oil, grease and paint prevent rusting?
They form a barrier that keeps out water and oxygen
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What is meant by the sacrificial method?
Placing a more reactive metal on a less reactive metal so water and oxygen react with the sacrificial metal
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What does electrolysis mean?
Splitting up with electricity
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What two elements do fuel cells use?
Hydrogen and oxygen
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What are some advantages of fuel cells?
efficient, generated directly, not as much energy lost as heat
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What are disadvantages of fuel cells?
Requires lots of energy and contains poisonous catalysts
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Advantages of CFCS?
non-toxic, non-flammable, chemically unreactive
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What does CFCS stand for?
Chlorofluorocarbons
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Disadvantage of CFCS?
Chlorine destroys ozone
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How do CFCS affect the ozone?
They break up and form chlorine atoms which attack the ozone
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What are free radicals?
When a covalent bond breaks evenly, very very reactive
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Why do CFCS stay in the stratosphere for ages?
Not very reactive, will only react with 1 or 2 chemicals in the atmosphere
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What does hard water make?
Scum and scale
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What is the hardness of water caused by?
Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions
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What is the equation for the hardness of water reaction?
Carbon dioxide + water + calcium carbonate -> calcium hydrogen carbonate
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What can temporary hardness of water be removed by?
Boiling
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What is the fermentation used for?
To convert sugars into ethanol
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Equation for fermentation?
Glucose -> ethanol + carbon dioxide
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Fermentation produces?
Ethanol
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Fermentation manufacture process?
Batch process
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Hydration manufacture process?
Continuous process
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What is ionic bonding?
Atoms losing of gaining electrons to form charged particles which strongly attach to each other
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Where do fats and oil come from?
Animals or Plants
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What are emulsions used from?
Oil and Water
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What charge does electrons have?
Negative
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What bonds do unsaturated oils contain?
Double bonds
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What is covalent bonding?
When non-metal atoms combine by sharing pairs of electrons
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What happens as you go down group 1?
More reactive, atomic radius is larger, less energy needed to remove them
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What happens when you go down group 7?
Halogens become less reactive
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What is reduction?
The gain of electrons
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What is oxidation?
The loss of electrons
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What are group 7 elements known as?
Halogens
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is thermal decomposition?

Back

When a substance breaks down in to at least two other substances when heated

Card 3

Front

What structure do metals have?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is precipitation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Where do we get water from?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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