chemistry revision

What metals make good catalysts?
Transition Metals
1 of 70
What is thermal decomposition?
When a substance breaks down in to at least two other substances when heated
2 of 70
What structure do metals have?
A crystal structure
3 of 70
What is precipitation?
When two solutions react and an insoluble solid forms in water
4 of 70
Where do we get water from?
Surface and Ground water
5 of 70
What does dry cleaning use to remove stains?
6 of 70
Describe a detergent molecule
Hydrophilic head, hydrophobic tail
7 of 70
What are alternatives to CFC's?
Alkanes and HFCS
8 of 70
What process is used in purifying water?
Filtration, Sedimentation and Chlorination
9 of 70
What impurities can tap water contain?
Nitrate residues, lead compounds and pesticide residues
10 of 70
What are the three particles found in an atom?
Nucleus, Protons and Neutrons
11 of 70
What is "the mole"?
The name given to a certain number
12 of 70
What is the equation for finding number of moles?
Number of moles = mass/mr
13 of 70
What is concentration?
A measure of how crowded things are
14 of 70
What is the formula for concentration?
concentration = # of moles/volume
15 of 70
How do you dilute a concentrated solution?
Divide to get a number less than one, volume to dilute=ratioXfinal volume, volume of water = total volume - volume to dilute
16 of 70
What are titrations used for?
To find out concentrations
17 of 70
How can you collect gas?
Gas syringe, upturned measuring cylinder or burette
18 of 70
What does the nucleus contain?
Protons and Neutrons
19 of 70
What is a reversible reaction?
Where the products can react with each other and convert back to original chemicals
20 of 70
If the position of equilibrium is left?
Lots of reactants but not as much products
21 of 70
If the position of equilibrium is right?
Lots of products but not as much reactants
22 of 70
What three things can change the position of equilibrium?
Temperature, pressure and concentration
23 of 70
What happens if you try to change equilibrium?
It counteracts
24 of 70
What is the contact process used for?
To make sulfuric acid
25 of 70
What is the first stage to make sulfur dioxide?
sulfur + oxygen -> sulfur dioxide
26 of 70
What's the second stage of the contact process?
oxidised sulfur dioxide + oxygen ↔ sulfur trioxide
27 of 70
Third step in contact process?
sulfur trioxide + water -> sulfuric acid
28 of 70
What do acids produce in water?
29 of 70
What do strong acids do in water?
Ionise completely
30 of 70
Which acids are better conductors?
Strong acids
31 of 70
Which acids react faster?
Strong acids
32 of 70
How to prepare insoluble salts?
Pick right reactants, precipitate, filter and dry
33 of 70
What is a REDOX reaction?
When reduction and oxidation happen at the same time
34 of 70
The rule for displacement reactions?
A more reactive metal will displace a less reactive metal from its compound
35 of 70
Rusting of iron is what reaction?
36 of 70
Whats the equation for rust?
iron + oxygen + water -> hydrated iron (III) oxide
37 of 70
What are metals combined with to prevent rust?
Other metals to make alloys
38 of 70
How do oil, grease and paint prevent rusting?
They form a barrier that keeps out water and oxygen
39 of 70
What is meant by the sacrificial method?
Placing a more reactive metal on a less reactive metal so water and oxygen react with the sacrificial metal
40 of 70
What does electrolysis mean?
Splitting up with electricity
41 of 70
What two elements do fuel cells use?
Hydrogen and oxygen
42 of 70
What are some advantages of fuel cells?
efficient, generated directly, not as much energy lost as heat
43 of 70
What are disadvantages of fuel cells?
Requires lots of energy and contains poisonous catalysts
44 of 70
Advantages of CFCS?
non-toxic, non-flammable, chemically unreactive
45 of 70
What does CFCS stand for?
46 of 70
Disadvantage of CFCS?
Chlorine destroys ozone
47 of 70
How do CFCS affect the ozone?
They break up and form chlorine atoms which attack the ozone
48 of 70
What are free radicals?
When a covalent bond breaks evenly, very very reactive
49 of 70
Why do CFCS stay in the stratosphere for ages?
Not very reactive, will only react with 1 or 2 chemicals in the atmosphere
50 of 70
What does hard water make?
Scum and scale
51 of 70
What is the hardness of water caused by?
Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions
52 of 70
What is the equation for the hardness of water reaction?
Carbon dioxide + water + calcium carbonate -> calcium hydrogen carbonate
53 of 70
What can temporary hardness of water be removed by?
54 of 70
What is the fermentation used for?
To convert sugars into ethanol
55 of 70
Equation for fermentation?
Glucose -> ethanol + carbon dioxide
56 of 70
Fermentation produces?
57 of 70
Fermentation manufacture process?
Batch process
58 of 70
Hydration manufacture process?
Continuous process
59 of 70
What is ionic bonding?
Atoms losing of gaining electrons to form charged particles which strongly attach to each other
60 of 70
Where do fats and oil come from?
Animals or Plants
61 of 70
What are emulsions used from?
Oil and Water
62 of 70
What charge does electrons have?
63 of 70
What bonds do unsaturated oils contain?
Double bonds
64 of 70
What is covalent bonding?
When non-metal atoms combine by sharing pairs of electrons
65 of 70
What happens as you go down group 1?
More reactive, atomic radius is larger, less energy needed to remove them
66 of 70
What happens when you go down group 7?
Halogens become less reactive
67 of 70
What is reduction?
The gain of electrons
68 of 70
What is oxidation?
The loss of electrons
69 of 70
What are group 7 elements known as?
70 of 70

Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is thermal decomposition?


When a substance breaks down in to at least two other substances when heated

Card 3


What structure do metals have?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is precipitation?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Where do we get water from?


Preview of the front of card 5
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