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Biochemistry 1.1

Main properties of water

Ice is less dense than water in its liquid form (forming an insulating layer allowing organisms
to survive underneath)
High Surface Tension (Jesus Lizard)
Strong cohesive properties (water attracted to water, held together by hydrogen bonds)
Colourless (Photosynthesis)
High specific heat capacity (Stable conditions…

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Glucose, Fructose and Galactose are examples of Hexoses.

Glucose exists in two forms: alpha glucose and beta glucose

They have the same
structural formulas, but
different structures. We call
them structural isomers.

On carbon atom 1 OH and H
have interchanged.


When two monosaccharides join together they form a…

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Reducing Sugars have carbonoxyl groups (C=O) which can be oxidised to carboxylic groups (-COOH)

They therefore react with Benedict's reagent to produce a precipitate

The colour of the solution depends on
the amount of the reducing sugar.

For example, a high amount of the
reducing sugar reacting with the

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Test for Starch- Add Iodine to solution, turns black if there is a positive result.

Cellulose is a structural polysaccharide made up of multiple
units of Beta glucose held together by 1,4 glycosidic bonds
forming long unbranched chains. These long, parallel chains of
Beta glucose are cross-linked to each other…

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Triglycerides (the most common type of lipid)

They are formed as a result of three
condensation reactions involving the ­OH
of glycerol and ­COOH of each fatty acid
(forming an ester bond.)

Different types of fatty acids (depending on the hydrocarbon tails, wich contain 4-24 carbons)



Saturated fatty…

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Made up of C,H,O,N and some also contain Sulfur and Phosphorus

Made up of sub units (amino acids)

There are 20 different kinds of amino acids
(but thousands of different types of protein.)

The `R' group varies depending on the kind
of amino acids

In a solution the amino…

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Protein Structures

(B)3D structure

Held together by hydrogen

(C) Complex 3D shape, when
the polypeptide helix twists
and fold around itself.
Hydrogen and Disulphide
bonds present

(D)Linking together of a
number of polypeptide
chains. Hydrogen and
Disulphide bonds present. Example- Haemoglobin.

Protein Bonding

Hydrogen bonds

Ionic Bonds

Disulphide bonds…

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An increase in temp. will cause atoms in the protein molecule to vibrate, breaking the protein bonds.

Globular and Fibrous Proteins

Fibrous Globular

Stable structure Unstable structure

Insoluble Soluble

Structural functions Metabolic reactions

Polypeptide chains form long strands Polypeptide chains rol up in a spherical shape


Collagen in…




Do you have any revision material for the rest of the BY1 unit? :) ***

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