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Genes & Health 05/12/2013 09:34

2) Explain the importance of water as a solvent in transport, including its dipole nature

- Water is vital to living organisms
makes up 80% of a cell's content
water is a solvent which means some substances dissolve in it.
Most biological relations take place…

Page 2

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Genes & Health 05/12/2013 09:34

Glycogen = polymer for alpha glucose
Cellulose = polymer of beta glucose

Starch and Glycogen:
o Energy stores
o Animals store glucose as glycogen
o Plants store glucose as starch
o Compact molecules
o Low solubility in water (don't effect water concentration in cytoplasm, so…

Page 3

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Genes & Health 05/12/2013 09:34

High melting point
Solid at room temp (butter)
Unsaturated fatty acids
Low melting point
Liquids at room temp (fish oil)

6) Explain why many animals have a heart and circulation (mass transport to overcome
limitations of diffusion in meeting the requirements of organisms)
Unicellular organism…

Page 4

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Genes & Health 05/12/2013 09:34

Ventricles fill with blood
Valvles in vena cava & pulmonary veins snap shut to prevent backflow of blood from
atria to viens
Ventricular Systole:
Ventricles contract from apex (base) upwards
Pressure inside ventricles increases
as pressure in ventricles > pressure in atria blood pushes against…

Page 5

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Genes & Health 05/12/2013 09:34

Base on aorta
Prevents backflow
Open during atrial systole

Elastic fibres
In the muscle layer
Allows stretching
Prevent damage of aorta

10) Describe the blood clotting process (thromboplastin release, conversion of prothrombin to
thrombin and fibrinogen to fibrin) and it's role in CVD (cardiovascular disease)…

Page 6

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Genes & Health 05/12/2013 09:34

A fatty deposit that builds up along the artery wall
o takes many years to develop
o can lead to CHD or myocardial infarction
more likely to develop if an artery has been damaged in some way
more likely if high blood pressure

Page 7

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Genes & Health 05/12/2013 09:34

If you have thrombotic disorder & need to stop clotting.
Interrupts part of the process involved in blood clotting
Reduces risk of intracranial bleeding
Older patients may be susceptible to bleeding complications
Increased risk of arterial calcification

Statins: e.g. stanols and sterols
If you have…

Page 8

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Genes & Health 05/12/2013 09:34

The higher your blood cholesterol, the greater the risk of CHD. Cholesterol isn't soluble in water, so
in order for it to be transported around the blood, insoluble cholesterol must combine with proteins
to form soluble phospholipids. Obesity and diabetes increases risk of CHD.


Page 9

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Genes & Health 05/12/2013 09:34

Risk = number of people with disease at any one time
number of people who could develop the disease
Risk factors ­ anything that increases chance of developing disease. They are correlational not
necessarily causal.

Page 10

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Genes & Health 05/12/2013 09:34

2) Explain how models such as the fluid mosaic membrane of cell membranes are
interpretations of data used to develop scientific explanations of the structure and properties
of cell membranes

Components of the plasma membrane:
Phospholipids ­ act as a
barrier to most molecules,


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