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Biology


Including Key Terms and Basic concepts




Unit 2.1 Biological Molecules

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2 Alpha Glucose = Maltose (1, 4-glycosidic bond)

Many Alpha Glucose = Amylose (1, 4-glycosidic bond)

Many Alpha Glucose = Glycogen (1, 4-glycosidic bond)

Many Beta Glucose = Cellulose (1, 4-glycosidic bond)

2 Amino Acids = Dipeptide (Peptide bond)




Haemoglobin Collagen
Globular Protein Fibrous protein
Soluble in Water Insoluble in…

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Insoluble in water (hydrophobic) because charges The water solubility of the hydrophilic head, gives
are distributed evenly around molecule so phospholipids their characteristics in terms of the
hydrogen bonds can't form with water molecules. capacity to form membranes.
Cholesterol




Its small, narrow structure and hydrophobic
nature all it to sit…

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Properties of water

Property Importance Examples
Solvent Metabolic processes in all Dissolved chemicals take part in
organisms rely on chemicals processes such as respiration
being able to react together in a and photosynthesis.
solution.
Liquid The movement of materials Blood in animals and vascular
around organisms requires a tissue in…

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Non-reducing sugars: Add benedict's solution and heat at 80oC for 5 mins. If it stays blue, then boil the
solution in hydrochloric acid. Then cool and neutralise by adding NaHCO3. Then carry out reducing
sugar test again. If a non-reducing sugar is now present, then it will now turn orange/red.…

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DNA

It's a long chain polymer of nucleotide monomers. The polymer is called a polynucleotide.
DNA is formed when 2 polynucleotide strands come together.





A pyrimidine always bonds with a purine.
Base A always bonds with T (because they are complementary). Base C always bonds with G
(because they are…

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Three forms of RNA:

Messenger RNA (mRNA) ­ made as a strand complementary to one strand of DNA.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) ­ found in ribosomes

Transfer RNA (tRNA) ­ carries amino acids to ribosomes where they are bonded to form polypeptides.

Enzymes

They are Globular proteins
They have a specific…

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Caused by Plasmodium Falciparum, a eukaryotic organism. It is spread by a vector (female anpheles
mosquito). It can be spread by unscreened blood transfusions, use of unsterilised needles and across
the placenta into an unborn.

HIV/AIDS

Caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). It can be transmitted by; exchange of body…

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They are produced in response to an infection. When an infecting agent is first detected, the immune
system will start to produce antibodies. This is the primary immune response.

How structure relates to function

The constant region enables phagocytes to bind with it, which helps with the process of phagocytosis.…

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Vaccination - It is a deliberate exposure to antigenic material, which activates the immune system to
make an immune response and provide immunity. It is artificial active immunity.

*Herd vaccination ­ vaccinating all of the population at risk i.e children vaccinated against measles,
mumps and rubella

*Ring vaccination ­ used…

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