OCR AS Biology (F212) revision guide

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Biology
Including Key Terms and Basic concepts
Unit 2.1 Biological Molecules
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Alpha Glucose = Maltose (1, 4-glycosidic bond)
Many Alpha Glucose = Amylose (1, 4-glycosidic bond)
Many Alpha Glucose = Glycogen (1, 4-glycosidic bond)
Many Beta Glucose = Cellulose (1, 4-glycosidic bond)
2 Amino Acids = Dipeptide (Peptide bond)
Haemoglobin Collagen
Globular Protein Fibrous protein
Soluble in Water Insoluble in Water
Primary ­ Wide range of amino acids joined by Primary- Polypeptide containing the replicating
peptide bonds sequence (Gly-X-Y)n
Secondary ­ -helix Secondary ­ Twisted left handed helix
Hydrogen bonds 3 polypeptide chains twisted around
each…read more

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Insoluble in water (hydrophobic) because charges The water solubility of the hydrophilic head, gives
are distributed evenly around molecule so phospholipids their characteristics in terms of the
hydrogen bonds can't form with water molecules. capacity to form membranes.
Cholesterol
Its small, narrow structure and hydrophobic
nature all it to sit between the phospholipid
hydrocarbon tails and help to regulate the fluidity
and strength of the membrane. It is used to form
steroid hormones.…read more

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Properties of water
Property Importance Examples
Solvent Metabolic processes in all Dissolved chemicals take part in
organisms rely on chemicals processes such as respiration
being able to react together in a and photosynthesis.
solution.
Liquid The movement of materials Blood in animals and vascular
around organisms requires a tissue in plants use water as a
transport medium. liquid transport medium.
Cohesion Water molecules stick to each Transport of water in xylem
other creating surface tension at relies on water sticking together
water surface.…read more

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Non-reducing sugars: Add benedict's solution and heat at 80oC for 5 mins. If it stays blue, then boil the
solution in hydrochloric acid. Then cool and neutralise by adding NaHCO3. Then carry out reducing
sugar test again. If a non-reducing sugar is now present, then it will now turn orange/red.
Test for proteins
Add biuret reagent to the protein. If proteins are present, then it will turn from pale blue to lilac.
Test for lipids
Add ethanol. Then pour this liquid into some water.…read more

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DNA
It's a long chain polymer of nucleotide monomers. The polymer is called a polynucleotide.
DNA is formed when 2 polynucleotide strands come together.
A pyrimidine always bonds with a purine.
Base A always bonds with T (because they are complementary). Base C always bonds with G
(because they are complementary).
The anti-parallel chains twist. This is the double helix.…read more

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Three forms of RNA:
Messenger RNA (mRNA) ­ made as a strand complementary to one strand of DNA.
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) ­ found in ribosomes
Transfer RNA (tRNA) ­ carries amino acids to ribosomes where they are bonded to form polypeptides.…read more

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Caused by Plasmodium Falciparum, a eukaryotic organism. It is spread by a vector (female anpheles
mosquito). It can be spread by unscreened blood transfusions, use of unsterilised needles and across
the placenta into an unborn.
HIV/AIDS
Caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). It can be transmitted by; exchange of body fluids,
unprotected sex, unscreened blood transfusions, across placenta during child birth and use of
unsterilised surgical equipment.
Tuberculosis (TB)
Caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis. It is spread by droplet infection.…read more

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They are produced in response to an infection. When an infecting agent is first detected, the immune
system will start to produce antibodies. This is the primary immune response.
How structure relates to function
The constant region enables phagocytes to bind with it, which helps with the process of phagocytosis.
The variable region has a specific shape, complementary to a certain antigen.
Hinge region allows flexibility.
It allows agglutination ­ the attachment of more than one antigen.…read more

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Vaccination - It is a deliberate exposure to antigenic material, which activates the immune system to
make an immune response and provide immunity. It is artificial active immunity.
*Herd vaccination ­ vaccinating all of the population at risk i.e children vaccinated against measles,
mumps and rubella
*Ring vaccination ­ used when a new diseases is reported. It is vaccinating people who are in the
immediate vicinity of the new disease.
Antigenic material can take variety of forms:
Whole live microorganisms.…read more

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